James C. Hower

  • Research Professor
  • Earth & Environmental Sciences
  • Sedimentary Geology
2540 Research Park Drive 40511-8410
859 257-0261
Research Interests:
Education

Ph.D., Geology, Pennsylvania State University, 1978
M.S., Geology and Mineralogy, Ohio State University, 1975
B.A., Earth Science, Millersville University, 1973

Research
  • Coal and fly ash petrology    
  • Characterization of by-products from coal combustion    
  • Assessment of coal-combustion by-product production in Kentucky

 

Selected Publications: 

PUBLICATIONS   (mainly refereed + a few conference and geological survey pubs; refereed publications in italics are from books)

 

1975:           

Hower, J.C., The paleomagnetism and structure of the Ordovician igneous rocks of Lebanon County, Pennsylvania:   M.S. thesis, The Ohio State University, 253 pp.

 

1978:                                                                                      

Hower, J.C., Anisotropy of vitrinite reflectance in relation to coal metamorphism for selected United States coals:  Ph.D. thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, 339 pp.

 

1979:           

Hower, J.C., A lower Ordovician geomagnetic pole from Pennsylvania:  Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 44, pp. 65-72.

 

1981:           

Hower, J.C., and Davis, A., Vitrinite reflectance anisotropy as a tectonic fabric element:  Geology, v. 9, pp. 165-168.

 

Hower, J.C., and Davis, A., Application of vitrinite reflectance anisotropy in the evaluation of coal metamorphism:   Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 92, part l, pp. 350-366.

 

Hower, J.C., and Wild, G.D., Petrography of the Herrin (No. 11) coal in western Kentucky:  Int. Journal of Coal Geology, v. 1, pp. 139-153.

 

1982:           

Hower, J.C., and Wild, G.D., Petrographic variation in the Springfield (No. 9) coal in western Kentucky:  Int. Journal of Coal Geology, v. 2, pp. 17-30.

 

1983:           

Trinkle, E.J., Hower, J.C., and Wild, G.D., Petrography of the Paradise (No.12), Baker (No. 13), and Coiltown (No. 14) coals of the lower portion of the Sturgis Formation (Pennsylvanian) in western Kentucky:  Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 94, pp. 1466-1474.

 

Hower, J.C., Fiene, F.L., Wild, G.D., and Helfrich, C.T., Coal metamorphism in the upper portion of the Pennsylvanian Sturgis Formation in western Kentucky:   Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 94, pp. 1475-1481.

 

1984:           

Clark, C.P., Freeman, G.B., and Hower, J.C., Non-matrix corrected organic sulfur determination by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy for western Kentucky coals and residues:  Scanning Electron Microscopy, v. 1984/II, pp. 537-545.

 

Hower, J.C., Frankie, K.A., Wild, G.D., and Trinkle, E.J., Coal microlithotype response to froth flotation in selected western Kentucky coals:  Fuel Processing Technology, v. 9, pp. 1-20.

 

Hower, J.C., Trinkle, E.J., and Wild, G.D., Maceral and pyrite partitioning through high-gradient magnetic separation of selected western Kentucky coals:  Fuel Processing Technology, v. 9, pp. 203-213.

 

Trinkle, E.J., and Hower, J.C., Petrography of the middle Pennsylvanian Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal of eastern Kentucky, U.S.A., in R.A. Rahmani and R.M. Flores, eds., Sedimentology of coal and coal-bearing sequences:  International Association of Sedimentologists, Special publication 7, published by Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp. 349-360.

 

1985:           

Reasoner, J.W., Hower, J.C., Yates, L.P., and Lloyd, W.G., Analytical pyrolysis as a tool for the study of plastic coals:  Fuel, v. 64, pp. 1269-1273.

 

Frankie, K.A., and Hower, J.C., Pyrite/marcasite size, form, and microlithotype association in western Kentucky prepared coals:  Fuel Processing Technology, v. 10, pp. 269-283.

 

1986:           

Hower, J.C., Trinkle, E.J., and Wild, G.D., Maceral partitioning through beneficiation of Illinois Basin coals:   Coal Preparation, v. 2, pp. 149-164.

 

Hower, J.C., Taulbee, D.N., Kuehn, D.W., and Poole, C., Petrology and geochemistry of the Breckinridge seam - a torbanite from western Kentucky:  Proceedings, 1986 Eastern Oil Shale Symposium, pp. 267-280.

 

Currens, J.C., Bragg, L.J., and Hower, J.C., Analysis of coal samples from the Princess District, Kentucky (Boyd, Carter, Greenup, and Lawrence Counties and part of Lewis County):   Kentucky Geological Survey, series XI, Information Circular 18, 128 pp.

 

1987:           

Hower, J.C., Trinkle, E.J., Graese, A.M., and Neuder, G.L., Ragged edge of the Herrin (No. 11) coal, western Kentucky:  Int. Journal of Coal Geology, v. 7, pp. 1-20.

 

Hower, J.C., Graese, A.M., and Klapheke, J.G., Influence of microlithotype composition on Hardgrove grindability for selected eastern Kentucky coals:  Int. Journal of Coal Geology, v. 7, pp. 227-244.

 

Frankie, K.A., and Hower, J.C., Variation in pyrite size, form, and microlithotype association in the Springfield (No. 9) and Herrin (No. 11) coals, western Kentucky:  Int. Journal of Coal Geology, v. 7, pp. 349-364.

 

Currens, J.C., Bragg, L.J., and Hower, J.C., Analysis of coal samples from the Hazard District, Kentucky:  Kentucky Geological Survey, series XI, Information Circular 19, 381 pp.

 

Currens, J.C., Bragg, L.J., and Hower, J.C., Analysis of coal samples from the Big Sandy District, Kentucky:  Kentucky Geological Survey, series XI, Information Circular 20, 421 pp.

 

Currens, J.C., Bragg, L.J., and Hower, J.C., Analysis of coal samples from the Southwestern District, Kentucky:  Kentucky Geological Survey, series XI, Information Circular 21, 338 pp.

 

Currens, J.C., Bragg, L.J., and Hower, J.C., Analysis of coal samples from the Upper Cumberland District, Kentucky:  Kentucky Geological Survey, series XI, Information Circular 22, 178 pp.

 

Currens, J.C., Bragg, L.J., and Hower, J.C., Analysis of coal samples from the Licking River District, Kentucky:  Kentucky Geological Survey, series XI, Information Circular 23, 127 pp.

 

1988:            

Hook, R.W., and Hower, J.C., Petrography and taphonomic significance of the vertebrate-bearing cannel coal of Linton, Ohio (Westphalian D, Upper Carboniferous):  Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 58, pp. 72-80.

 

Hower, J.C., and Pollock, J.D., Petrology of the Pond Creek coal bed in eastern Kentucky:  Organic Geochemistry, v. 12, pp. 297-302.

 

Hower, J.C., Additivity of Hardgrove grindability:  A Case Study:  Journal of Coal Quality, v. 7, pp. 68-70.

 

Hower, J.C., and Lineberry, G.T., The interface of coal lithology and coal cutting:  study of breakage characteristics of selected Kentucky coals:  Journal of Coal Quality, v. 7, pp. 88-95.

 

Hower, J.C. and Wild, G.D., Relationship between Hardgrove grindability index and petrographic composition for high volatile bituminous coals from Kentucky:  Journal of Coal Quality, v. 7, p. 122-126.

 

1989:           

Hower, J.C. and Bland, A.E., Geochemistry of the Pond Creek Coal Bed, Eastern Kentucky Coalfield:  Int. Journal of Coal Geology, v. 11, pp. 205-226.

 

Hower, J.C. and Pollock, J.D., Petrology of the River Gem Coal Bed, Whitley County, Kentucky:  Int. Journal of Coal Geology, v. 11, pp. 227-245.

 

Hower, J.C., Petrology of liquefaction residues from the Breckinridge coal bed, western Kentucky:  Organic Geochemistry, v. 14, pp. 299-305.

 

Helfrich, C.T., and Hower, J.C., Palynologic and petrographic variation in the Otter Creek coal beds (Stephanian, Upper Carboniferous), Western Kentucky:  Review of Paleobotany and Palynology, v. 60, p. 179-189.

 

Lloyd, W.G., Reasoner, J.W., Hower, J.C., and Yates, L.P., Effects of pressure upon the isothermal plastic behavior of high volatile bituminous Kentucky coals:  Energy & Fuels, v. 3, p. 585-589.

 

Hower, J.C., Griswold, T.B., and Pollock, J.D., Caveats on the use of published coal quality data:  Journal of Coal Quality, v. 8, p. 49-51.

                                                    

 

1990:

O'Hara, K., Hower, J.C., and Rimmer, S.M., Some constraints on the emplacement and uplift history of the Pine Mountain thrust sheet, eastern Kentucky:  evidence from coal rank trends:  Journal of Geology, v. 98, p. 43-51.

 

Hower, J.C., Rich, F.J., Williams, D.A., Bland, A.E., and Fiene, F.L., Cretaceous and Eocene lignites, Jackson Purchase, Kentucky:   Int. Journal of Coal Geology, v. 16, p. 239-254.

 

Hower, J.C., Esterle, J.S., Wild, G.D., and Pollock, J.D., Perspectives on coal lithotype analysis: Journal of Coal Quality, v. 9, p. 48-52.

 

Hower, J.C., Rimmer, S.M., Williams, D.A., and Beard, J.G., Coal rank trends in the Western Kentucky coalfield and relationship to hydrocarbon occurrence, in Nuccio, V.T., and Barker, C.E., ed., Applications of thermal maturity studies to energy exploration:  Rocky Mountain Section, Society of Economic Paleontogists and Mineralogists, p. 127-138.

 

Lewis, S.E., and Hower, J.C., Thermal events and thrust emplacement sequence in the Appalachian fold and thrust belt: some new vitrinite reflectance data:  Journal of Geology, v. 98, p. 927-942.

 

Lloyd, W.G., Reasoner, J.W., Hower, J.C., and Yates, L.P., Estimates of fluid properties of high volatile bituminous coals:  Fuel, v. 69, p. 1257-1270.

 

Hower, J.C., Wild, G.D., Pollock, J.D., Trinkle, E.J., Bland, A.E., and Fiene, F.L., Petrography, geochemistry, and mineralogy of the Springfield (Western Kentucky No. 9) coal bed:  Journal of Coal Quality, v. 9, p. 90 - 100.

 

Griswold, T.B., Hower, J.C., and Cobb, J.C., Impact of coal quality variations on utilization of the Springfield (Western Kentucky No. 9) coal bed:  Journal of Coal Quality, v. 9, p. 113-119.

 

1991:

Helfrich, C.T., and Hower, J.C., Palynologic and petrographic variation in the Pond Creek coal bed, Pike County, Kentucky:  Organic Geochemistry, v. 17, p. 153-159.

 

Hower, J.C., and Rimmer, S.M., Coal rank trends in the Central Appalachian coalfield:  Virginia, West Virginia, and Kentucky:  Organic Geochemistry, v. 17, p. 161-173.

 

Esterle, J.S., Moore, T.A., and Hower, J.C., A reflected-light petrographic technique for coarse-grained woody peats:  Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 61, p. 614-616.

 

Hower, J.C., Rimmer, S.M., and Bland, A.E., Geochemistry of the Blue Gem coal bed, Knox County, Kentucky:  Int. J. Coal Geology, v.18, p. 211-231.

 

Raione, R.P., Hower, J.C., and Wild, G.D., Influence of regional structure on the development and quality of the Upper Elkhorn No. 2 coal bed, eastern Kentucky:  Int. J. Coal Geology, v. 18, p. 305-325.

 

Hower, J.C. and Parekh, B.K., Chemical/physical properties and marketing, in J.W. Leonard, Coal preparation, 5th ed.:  AIME, chapter 1, 94 p.

 

Taulbee, D.N., Hower, J.C., and Greb, S.F., Examination of micrinite concentrates from the Cannel City coal bed of eastern Kentucky:  proposed mechanism of formation:  Organic Geochemistry, v. 17, p. 557-565.

 

Hower, J.C., Keogh, R.A., and Taulbee, D.N., Petrology of liquefaction residues:  maceral concentrates from a Pond Creek durain, eastern Kentucky:  Organic Geochemistry, v. 17, p. 431-438.

 

Hower, J.C., Pollock, J.D., and Griswold, T.B., Structural controls on petrology and geochemistry of the Pond Creek coal bed, Pike and Martin Counties, eastern Kentucky, in D.C. Peters, ed., Geology in coal resource utilization:  Am. Assoc. of Petroleum Geologists, Energy Minerals Division, p. 413-427.

 

Hower, J.C., Riley, J.T., Thomas, G.A., and Griswold, T.B., Chlorine in Kentucky coals:  Journal of Coal Quality, v.10, p. 152-158.

 

Hower, J.C., and Wild, G.D., Maceral partitioning for selected eastern Kentucky coals:  Journal of Coal Quality, v. 10, p. 159-163.

 

1992:

Hatton, A.R., Hower, J.C., Helfrich, C.T., Pollock, J.D., and Wild, G.D., Lithologic succession in the Path Fork coal bed (Breathitt Formation, Middle Pennsylvanian), southeastern Kentucky:  Organic Geochemistry, v. 18, p. 301-311.

 

Hower, J.C., Trinkle, E.J., Pollock, J.D., and Helfrich, C.T., Influence of penecontemporaneous tectonism on thickness and quality of Breathitt Formation coals, eastern Kentucky, in J. Platt, J. Price, M. Miller, and S. Suboleski, One point two - New  perspectives on Central Appalachian low-sulfur coal supplies:  Coal Decisions Forum, Tech Books, 143-170.

 

Griswold, T.B., and Hower, J.C., Coal quality considerations for the utilization of selected low-sulfur coals from the Appalachian region of Kentucky, in J. Platt, J. Price, M. Miller, and S. Suboleski, One point two - New perspectives on Central Appalachian low-sulfur coal supplies:  Coal Decisions Forum, Tech Books, p. 171-193.

 

Graese, A.M., Baynard, D.N., Hower, J.C., Ferm, J.C., and Liu, Y., Stratigraphic and regional variation of the petrographic and chemical properties of the Tradewater Formation coals and surrounding rocks in western Kentucky:  Int. J. Coal Geology, v. 21, p. 237-259.

 

Hower, J.C., Barron, L.S., and Moshier, S.O., Application of Hardgrove grindability index in carbonate characterization:  Minerals & Metallurgical Processing, v. 9, p. 146-150.

 

Keogh, R.A., Taulbee, D.N., Hower, J.C., Chawla, B., and Davis, B.H., Liquefaction characteristics of the three major maceral groups separated from a single coal: Energy & Fuels, v. 6, p. 609-613.

 

Hower, J.C., Keogh, R.A., and Davis, B.H., Petrography of liquefaction residues: High-vitrinite, high-sulfur Davis (Western Kentucky No. 6) coal:  Energy & Fuels, v. 6, p. 614-618.

 

Hower, J.C., and Wild, G.D., Maceral partitioning in the Herrin (Western Kentucky No. 11) and Springfield (Western Kentucky No. 9) coals:    Influence of fine-coal cleaning:  Journal of Coal Quality, v. 11, p. 50-55.

                     

1993:

Hower, J.C., Keogh, R.A., Taulbee, D.N., and Rathbone, R.F., Petrography of liquefaction residues:  semifusinite concentrates from a Peach Orchard coal lithotype, Magoffin County, Kentucky:  Organic Geochemistry, v. 20, p. 167-176.

 

Rathbone, R.F., Hower, J.C., and Derbyshire, F.J., The application of fluorescence microscopy to coal-derived resid characterization:  Fuel, v. 72, p. 1177-1185.

 

Hower, J.C., Levine, J.R., Skehan, J.W., S.J., Daniels, E.J., Lewis, S.E., Davis, A., Gray, R.J., and Altaner, S.P., Appalachian anthracites:  Organic Geochemistry, v. 20,  p. 619-642.

 

Hower, J.C., and Robl, T.L., Production of coal-combustion by-products in Kentucky:  Trends and prospects:  Journal of Coal Quality, v. 12, p. 24-29.

 

Hower, J.C., Robertson, J.D., Graham, U.M., Thomas. G.A., Wong, A.S., and Schram, W.H., Characterization of Kentucky coal-combustion by-products:  compositional variations based on sulfur content of feed coal:  Journal of Coal Quality, v. 12, p. 150-155.

 

1994:

Eble, C.F., Hower, J.C., and Andrews, W.M., Jr., Paleoecology of the Fire Clay coal bed in a portion of the Eastern Kentucky coal field:  Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 106, p. 287-305.

 

Hower, J.C, Eble, C.F., and Rathbone, R.F., Petrology and palynology of the No. 5 Block coal bed, northeastern Kentucky:    International Journal of Coal Geology,  v. 25, p. 171-193.

 

Hower, J.C., Graham, U.M., and Eble, C.F., High-sulfur coals in the Eastern Kentucky coal field, in A.P. Schultz and E.K. Rader, eds., Studies in Eastern Energy and the Environment:  Virginia Division of Mineral Resources, Publication 132, p. 1-6.

 

Hower, J.C., and Wild, G.D., Petrology of Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) coals, Atlantic continental slope, New Jersey, in A.P. Schultz and E.K. Rader, eds., Studies in Eastern Energy and the Environment:  Virginia Division of Mineral Resources, Publication 132, p. 11-15.

 

Hower, J.C., Taulbee, D.N., Rimmer, S.M., and Morrell, L.G., Petrographic and geochemical anatomy of lithotypes from the Blue Gem coal bed, southeastern Kentucky:  Energy & Fuels, v. 8, p. 719-728.

 

Hower, J.C., Helfrich, C.T., and Williams, D.A., Palynologic and petrographic cycles in the McLeansboro Group, western Kentucky:  Int. Journal of Coal Geology, v. 26,  p. 117-132.

 

Andrews, W.M., Jr., Hower, J.C., and Hiett, J.K., Investigations of the Fire Clay coal bed, southeastern Kentucky, in the vicinity of sandstone washouts:  Int. Journal of Coal Geology, v. 26, p. 95-115.

 

Hower, J.C., Hiett, J.K., Wild, G.D., and Eble, C.F., Coal resources, production, and quality in the Eastern Kentucky coal field:  Perspectives on the future of steam coal production:  Nonrenewable Resources, v. 3, p. 216-236.

 

Hower, J.C., Wild, G.D., and Eble, C.F., Coal quality considerations in the future production of metallurgical coal in eastern Kentucky:   Journal of Coal Quality, v. 13, p. 1-6.

 

Hower, J.C., Andrews, W.M., Jr., Wild, G.D., Eble. C.F., Dulong, F.T., and Salter, T.L., Coal quality trends for the Fire Clay coal bed, southeastern Kentucky:  Journal of Coal Quality, v. 13, p. 13-26.

 

Hower, J.C., and Wild, G.D., Maceral/microlithotype analysis evaluation of coal grinding:  Examples from central Appalachian high volatile bituminous coals: Journal of Coal Quality, v. 13, p. 35-40.

 

Hower, J.C., Rathbone, R.F., Wild, G.D., and Davis, A., Observations on the use of vitrinite maximum reflectance versus vitrinite random reflectance for high volatile bituminous coals: Journal of Coal Quality, v. 13, p. 71-76.

                     

Wong, A.S., Hower, J.C., Robertson, J.D., Haeberlin, B.O., Thomas, G.A., and Schram, W.H., Fluorine partitioning in flue-gas desulfurization: Examples from coal-fired power plants in Kentucky:  Journal of Coal Quality, v. 13, p. 81-87.

 

Hower, J.C., Graham, U.M., Rathbone, R.F., and Robl, T.L., Retorting potential of lignite overburden from clay mining: Journal of Coal Quality, v. 13, p. 113-117.

 

1995:

Hower, J.C., Scott, A.C., Hutton, A.C., Parekh, B.K., and Dauley, B., Coal - Availability, mining, and preparation:  Encyclopedia of Energy Technology and the Environment, edited by A. Bisio and S.G. Boots, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., p. 603-684.

 

Hower, J.C., Anderson, K.B., Mackay, G.,  Pinheiro, H., Flores, D., and Lemos de Sousa, M.J., Inter-laboratory comparisons of petrography of liquefaction residues from three Argonne premium coals:  Organic Geochemistry, v. 22, p. 27-32.

 

Graham, U.M., Hower, J.C., Rathbone, R.F., and Spears, M.M., Pyrolysis processing characteristics of Kentucky cannel coals:  Organic Geochemistry, v. 22, p. 33-37.

 

Willard, D.A., DiMichele, W.A., Eggert, D.L., Hower, J.C., Rexroad, C.B., and Scott, A.C., Paleoecology of the Springfield coal member (Desmoinesian, Illinois Basin) near the Leslie Cemetery paleochannel, southwestern Indiana: Int. J. Coal Geology, v. 27, p. 59-98.

 

Eble, C.F., and Hower, J.C., Palynologic, petrographic, and geochemical characteristics of the Manchester coal bed in eastern Kentucky:  Int. Journal Coal Geology, v. 27, p. 249-278.

 

Hower, J.C., Uncertain and treacherous: The cannel coal industry in Kentucky: Nonrewable Resources, v. 4, p. 310-324.

 

Hower, J.C., Rathbone, R.F., Graham, U.M., Groppo, J.G., Brooks, S.M., Robl, T.L., and Medina, S.S., Approaches to the petrographic characterization of fly ash: International Coal Testing Conference, 11th, Lexington, KY, May 10-12, 1995, p. 49-54.

 

1996:

Hower, J.C.,  Thomas, G.A., Clifford, D.S., Eady, J.D., J.D. Robertson, and Wong, A.S., Petrography and chemistry of fly ash from the Shawnee power station, Kentucky:  Energy Sources, v. 18, p. 107-118.

 

Hower, J.C., Robertson, J.D., Thomas, G.A., Wong, A.S., Schram, W.H., Graham, U.M., Rathbone, R.F., and Robl, T.L., Characterization of fly ash from Kentucky power plants:  Fuel, v. 75, p. 403-411.

 

Hutton, A.C., Graham, U.M., Hower, J.C., Rathbone, R.F., Robl, T.L., Petrography of pyrolysis and pyrolysis-steam retorted residues from the Alpha torbanite and the Alpha coal: Organic Geochemistry, v. 24, p. 219-226.

 

Wang, Z., Hower, J.C., Ferm, J.C., and Wild, G.D., Characteristics of lithotype thickness and sequential association of some Kentucky coals:  Organic Geochemistry, v. 24, p. 189-195.

 

Mastalerz, M., and Hower, J.C., Elemental composition and molecular structure of Botryococcus alginite in Westphalian cannel coals from Kentucky: Organic Geochemistry, v. 24, p. 301-308.

 

Hower, J.C., Ruppert, L.F., Eble, C.F., and Graham, U.M., Geochemical and palynologic indicators of the paleoecology of the River Gem coal bed, Whitley County, Kentucky:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 31, p. 135-149.

 

Hower, J.C., Eble, C.F., and, Pierce, B.S., Petrography, geochemistry, and palynology of the Stockton coal bed, Kentucky:   International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 31, p. 195-215.

 

Andrews, W.M., Jr., Hower, J.C., Ferm, J.C., Evans, S.D., Sirek, N.S., Warrell, M., and Eble, C.F., A depositional model for the Taylor coal bed, Martin and Johnson counties, eastern Kentucky:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 31, p. 151-167.

 

Toles, C., Rimmer, S., and Hower, J.C., Production of activated carbons from a Washington state lignite using phosphoric acid activation: Carbon, v. 34, p. 1419-1426.

 

1997:

Hower, J.C., Observations on the role of the Bernice coal field (Sullivan County, Pennsylvania) anthracites in the development of coalification theories in the Appalachians: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 33, p. 95-102.

 

Hower, J.C., and Calder, J.H., Maceral/microlithotype analysis of the Hardgrove grindability of lithotypes from the Phalen coal bed, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia:  Minerals & Metallurgical Processing, v. 14, no. 1, p. 49-54.

 

Hill, R.L., Sarkar, S.L., Rathbone, R.F., and Hower, J.C., An examination of fly ash carbon and its interactions with air entraining agents: Cement and Concrete Research, v. 27, p. 193-204.

 

Hower, J.C., Robertson, J.D., Wong, A.S., Eble, C.F., and Ruppert, L.F., Arsenic and lead concentrations in the Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds, Eastern Kentucky:  Applied Geochemistry, v. 12, p. 281-289.

 

Hower, J.C., Kuehn, K.W., Parekh, B.K., and Andrews, W.M., Jr., Maceral and microlithotype response to oil agglomeration for selected eastern Kentucky high volatile A bituminous coals: Fuel Processing Technology, v. 50, p. 185-198.

 

Eble, C.F., and Hower, J.C., Coal quality trends and distribution of potentially hazardous trace elements in eastern Kentucky coals: Spatial and temporal trends:  Fuel, v. 76, p. 711-715.

 

Ban, H., Li, T.X., Hower, J.C., Schaefer, J.L., and Stencel, J.M., Dry triboelectrostatic beneficiation of fly ash: Fuel, v. 76, p. 801-805.

 

de Wet, C.B., Moshier, S.O., Hower, J.C., de Wet, A.P., Brennan, S., Helfrich, C.T., and Raymond, A.L., Disrupted coal and carbonate facies within two Pennsylvanian cyclothems, Southern Illinois Basin, USA: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 109, p. 1231-1248.

 

Padgett, P.L., and Hower, J.C., Hardgrove grindability study of Powder River Basin and Appalachian coal components in the blend to a Midwestern power station:  Minerals & Metallurgical Processing, v. 14, no. 3, p. 45-49.

 

Hower, J.C., Ban, H., Schaefer, J.L., and Stencel, J.M., Maceral/microlithotype partitioning through  triboelectrostatic dry coal cleaning: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 34, p. 277-285.

 

Hower, J.C., Rathbone, R.F., Robl, T.L., Thomas, G.A., Haeberlin, B.O., and Trimble, A.S., Case study of the conversion of tangential- and wall-fired units to low-NOx combustion: Impact on fly ash quality: Waste Management, v. 17, p. 219-229.

 

Hower, J.C., Graham, U.M., Wong, A.S., Robertson, J.D., Haeberlin, B.O., Thomas, G.A., and Schram, W.H., Influence of flue-gas desulfurization on coal combustion by-product quality at Kentucky power stations burning high-sulfur coal:  Waste Management, v. 17, p. 523-533.

 

Hower, J.C., Robl, T.L., Rathbone, R.F., Schram, W.H., and Thomas, G.A., Characterization of Pre- and Post-NOx Conversion Fly Ash From the Tennessee Valley Authority’s John Sevier Fossil Plant:  Proceedings, 12th International Symposium on Coal Combustion By-Product (CCB) Management and Use, January 26-30, 1997, Orlando, FL, published by Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI TR-107055-V2, p. 39-1 - 39-13.

 

1998:

Mastalerz, M., Hower, J.C., and Carmo, A., In-situ FTIR and flash pyrolysis/GC-MS characterization of Protosalvinia (Upper Devonian, Kentucky): Implications for maceral classification: Organic Geochemistry, v. 28, p. 57-66.

 

Maroto-Valer, M.M., Taulbee, D.N., Andrésen, J.M., Hower, J.C., and Snape, C.E., Quantitative 13 C  NMR study of structural variations within the vitrinite and inertinite maceral groups for a semifusinite-rich bituminous coal: Fuel, v. 77, p. 805-813.

 

Hower, J.C., Interrelationship of coal grinding properties and coal petrology:  Minerals & Metallurgical Processing, v. 15, no. 3, p. 1-16.

 

Hower, J.C., Blanchard, L.J., and Robertson, J.D., Magnitude of minor element reduction through beneficiation of Central Appalachian coals: Coal Preparation, v. 19, p. 213-229.

 

Jaminski, J., Algeo, T.J., Maynard, J.B., and Hower, J.C., Climatic origin of dm-scale compositional cyclicity in the Cleveland Member of the Ohio Shale (Upper Devonian), Central Appalachian Basin, USA, in J. Schieber, W. Zimmerle, and P. Sethi, Shales and Mudstones: Volume I:  Basin studies, sedimentology, and paleontology:  Stuttgart, Schweizerbart’sche, p. 217-242.

 

Hoffman, D.L., Algeo, T.J., Maynard, J.B., Joachimski, M.M., Hower, J.C., and Jaminski, J., Regional and stratigraphic variation in bottomwater anoxia in offshore core shales of Upper Pennsylvanian cyclothems from the Eastern Midcontinent shelf (Kansas), USA, in J. Schieber, W. Zimmerle, and P. Sethi, Shales and Mudstones: Volume I: Basin studies, sedimentology, and paleontology:  Stuttgart, Schweizerbart’sche, p. 243-269.

 

Maroto-Valer, M.M., Taulbee, D.N., Andrésen, J.M., Hower, J.C., and Snape, C.E., The role of semifusinite in coal plasticity development for a coking coal: Energy & Fuels, v. 12, p. 1040-1046.

 

Hower, J.C., and Hower, J.E., Unequaled advantages: A brief history of the rise and fall of the anthracite industry in Lebanon County, Pennsylvania: Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences, v. 20, p. 281-293.

 

Hower, J.C., and Cardott, B.J., Generation and expulsion of petroleum and gas from Almond Formation coal, greater Green River Basin, Wyoming: Discussion: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 82, p. 2135-2136.

 

Hower, J.C., Stanton, R.W., Gammidge, L., and Hutton, A.C., Volume II.  Coal petrology, in A. Papp, J.C. Hower and D.C. Peters, Atlas of Coal Geology: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Energy Minerals Division and The Society for Organic Petrology, AAPG Studies in Geology 45, cd-rom.

 

Hill, R.L., Rathbone, R.F., and Hower, J.C., Investigation of fly ash carbon by thermal analysis and optical microscopy: Cement and Concrete Research, v. 28, p. 1479-1488.

 

1999:

Eble, C.F., Greb, S.F., Williams, D.A., and Hower, J.C., Observations on the palynology, petrography, and geochemistry of the Western Kentucky No. 4 coal bed:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 39, p. 121-139.

 

Hower, J.C., Ruppert, L.F., and Eble, C.F., Lanthanide, Yttrium, and Zirconium anomalies in the Fire Clay coal bed, Eastern Kentucky: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 39, p. 141-153.

 

Padgett, P.L., Rimmer, S.M., Ferm, J.C., Hower, J.C., Eble, C.F., and Mastalerz, M., Sulfur variability and petrology of the Lower Block coal member (Pennsylvanian) in southwest Indiana:  International Journal of Coal Geology,  v. 39, p. 97-120.

 

Foner, H.A., Robl, T.L., Hower, J.C., and Graham, U.M., Some characteristics and potential uses of coal fly ash from Israel:  Fuel, v. 78, 215-223.

 

Hower, J.C., Rathbone, R.F., Robertson, J.D., Peterson, G., and Trimble, A.S., Petrology, mineralogy, and chemistry of magnetically-separated sized fly ash:  Fuel, v. 78, p. 197-203.

 

Hower, J.C., and Lloyd, W.G., Petrographic observations of Gieseler semi-cokes from high volatile bituminous coals:  Fuel, v. 78, p. 445-451.

 

Hower, J.C., Robl, T.L., and Thomas, G.A., Changes in the Quality of Coal Combustion By-products Produced by Kentucky Power Plants, 1978 to 1997:  Consequences of Clean Air Act Directives: Fuel,  v. 78, p. 701-712.

 

Hower, J.C., Trimble, A.S., Eble, C.F., Palmer, C., and Kolker, A., Characterization of Fly Ash from Low-sulfur and High-sulfur Coal Sources: Partitioning of carbon and trace elements with particle size: Energy Sources, v. 21, p. 511-525.

 

Greb, S.F., Eble, C.F., and Hower, J.C., Depositional history of the Fire Clay coal bed (Late Duckmantian), eastern Kentucky, USA:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 40, p. 255-280.

 

Maroto-Valer, M. M., Taulbee, D.N., and Hower, J.C., Novel separation of the differing forms of unburned carbon present in fly ash using density gradient centrifugation: Energy & Fuels, v. 13, p. 947-953.

 

Hower, J.C., Robl, T.L., and Thomas, G.A., Changes in the quality of coal delivered to Kentucky power plants, 1978 to 1997: Responses to Clean Air Act directives: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 41, p. 125-155.

 

Hutton, A.C., and Hower, J.C., Cannel coals: Implications for classification and terminology:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 41, p. 157-188.

 

Li, T.X., Ban, H., Hower, J.C., Stencel, J.M., and Saito, K., Dry triboelectrostatic separation of mineral particles: a potential application in space exploration: Journal of Electrostatics, v. 47, p. 133-142.

 

Greb, S.F., Eble, C.F., Chesnut, D.R., Jr., Phillips, T.L., and Hower, J.C., An in situ occurrence of coal balls in the Amburgy coal bed, Pikeville Formation (Duckmantian), Central Appalachian Basin, USA.: Palaios, v. 14, p. 432-450.

 

Hower, J.C., Thomas, G.A., and Palmer, J., Impact of the Conversion to Low-NOx Combustion on Ash Characteristics in a

Utility Boiler Burning Western US Coal: Fuel Processing Technology, v. 61, p. 175-195.

 

Hower, J.C., Matthew Carey Lea: Contributions to coal rank studies in the Southern Anthracite Field of Pennsylvania: Northeastern Geology and Environmental Sciences, v. 21, p. 305-308.

 

Hower, J.C., Trerice, D.R., Rathbone, R.F., Thomas, G.A., and Hobbs, A.D., Short-term variation in fly ash petrology and mineralogy: Examples from a western Pennsylvania power station: 13th International Symposium on Use and Management of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs), American Coal Ash Association, 11-15 Jan 1999, Orlando, FL, EPRI TR-111829-V1, p. 28-1 - 28-28-10.

 

2000:

Hower, J.C., Finkelman, R.B., Rathbone, R.F., and Goodman,  J., Intra- and Inter-unit Variation in Fly Ash Petrography and Mercury Adsorption: Examples from a Western Kentucky Power Station: Energy & Fuels, v. 14, p. 212-216.

 

Hower, J.C.,  Maroto-Valer, M.M., Taulbee, D.N., Sakulpitkakphon, T.,  Mercury Capture by Distinct Fly Ash Carbon Forms: Energy & Fuels, v. 14, p. 224-226.

 

Rimmer, S.M., Hower, J.C., Moore, T.A., Esterle, J.S., Walton, R.L., and Helfrich, C.T., Petrography and palynology of the Blue Gem coal bed, southeastern Kentucky, USA:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 42, 159-184.

 

Hower, J.C., Calder, J.H., Eble, C.F., Scott, A.C., Robertson, J.D., and Blanchard, L.J., Metalliferous Coals of the Westphalian A  Joggins Formation, Cumberland Basin, Nova Scotia, Canada:  Petrology, Geochemistry, and Palynology:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 42, p. 185-206.

 

Hower, J.C., and Malinconico, M.L., Organic metamorphism in Middle Ordovician carbonates, Lebanon Valley nappe, Pennsylvania:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 42, 221-230.

 

Wild, G.D., Kuehn, K.W., and Hower, J.C., Assessment of compositional variation in duplicate samples of pelletized coal:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 42, 231-240.

 

Sakulpitakphon, T., Hower, J.C., Trimble, A.S., Schram, W.H., and Thomas, G.A., Mercury capture by fly ash: Study of the combustion of a high-mercury coal at a utility boiler: Energy & Fuels, v. 14, p. 727-733.

 

Hower, J.C., Kuehn, K.W., Parekh, B.K., and Peters, W.J., Maceral and microlithotype beneficiation in column flotation at the Powell Mountain Mayflower coal preparation plant, Lee County, Virginia: Fuel Processing Technology, v. 67, p. 23-33.

 

Hower, J.C., Schram, W.H., and Thomas, G.A., Forensic petrology and geochemistry: Tracking the source of a coal slurry spill, Lee County, Virginia:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 44, p. 101-108.

 

Trimble, A. S., and Hower, J.C., Maceral/Microlithotype Analysis of the Progressive Grinding of a Central Appalachian High Volatile Bituminous Coal Blend: Minerals & Metallurgical Processing, v. 17 (4), p. 234-243.

 

Hower, J.C., Greb, S.F., Cobb, J.C., and Williams, D.A., Discussion on origin of vanadium in coals: parts of the Western Kentucky (USA) No. 9 coal rich in vanadium: Special Publication No. 125, 1997, 273-286:   Journal of the Geological Society, v. 157, p. 1257-1259.

 

2001:

Maroto-Valer, M.M., Taulbee, D.N., and Hower, J.C., Characterization of the carbon types present in fly ash separated by density gradient centrifugation: Fuel, v. 80, p. 795-800.

 

Hower, J.C., and Williams, D.A., Further examination of the Ragged Edge of the Herrin coal bed, Webster County, Western Kentucky coal field:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 46, p. 145-155.

                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Hower, J.C., Trimble, A.S., and Eble, C.F., Temporal and spatial variations in fly ash quality: Fuel Processing Technology, v. 73, p. 37-58.

 

Hower, J.C., and Mastalerz, M., An Approach Towards a Combined Scheme for the Petrographic Classification of Fly Ash: Energy & Fuels, v. 15, p. 1319-1321.

 

Hower, J.C., Williams, D.A., Eble, C.F., Sakulpitakphon, T., and Moecher, D.P., Brecciated and mineralized coals in Union County, Western Kentucky coal field:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 47, p. 223-234.

 

Maynard, J.B., Elswick, E.R., and Hower, J.C., Vitrinite reflectance of shales hosting Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization in Western Cuba:  Evidence for syngenetic mineralization:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 47, 161-170.

 

Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Zhuang, Xinguo , Hower, J.C., Lopez-Soler, A., Plana, F., Zeng, Rongsu, Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Permo-Triassic Leping Coal, Jiangxi Province, Southeast China:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 48, p. 23-45.

 

Hower, J.C., Robertson, J.D., and Roberts, J.M., Combustion by-products from the co-combustion of coal, tire-derived fuel, and petroleum coke at a Western Kentucky cyclone-fired unit:  Fuel Processing Technology, v. 74, p. 125-142.

 

Karayigit, A., Onacak, T., and Hower, J.C., Türkiye’de kömür yakan bazý termik santral uçucu küllerinin özellikleri (Characterization of some fly ashes from Turkish coal-fired power plants): Geological Congress of Turkey, 54th, Ankara, 7-10 May 2001, paper 54-68, cd rom.

 

2002:

Greb, S.F., Eble, C.F., Hower, J.C., and Andrews, W.M., Multiple-bench architecture and interpretations of original mire phases in Middle Pennsylvanian coal seams: Examples from the Eastern Kentucky coal field:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 49, p. 147-175.

 

Hubbard, T.E., Miller, T.R., Hower, J.C., Ferm, J.C., and Helfrich, C.F., The Upper Hance coal bed in southeastern Kentucky: Palynologic, geochemical, and petrographic evidence for environmental succession:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 49, p. 177-194.

 

Hower, J.C. and Gayer, R., Mechanisms of coal metamorphism: Case studies from Paleozoic coal fields:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 50, p. 215-245.

 

Hower, J.C., Ruppert, L.F., and Williams, D.A., Controls on Boron and Germanium Distribution in the Low-Sulfur Amos Coal Bed:  Western Kentucky Coalfield, USA:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 53, p. 27-42.

                                                                                                                                                               

2003:

Hower, J.C., and Robertson, J.D., Clausthalite in Coal:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 53, p.  219-225.

 

Sakulpitakphon, T., Hower, J.C., and Taulbee, D.N., Predicted CO2 Content of Maceral Concentrates from Kentucky and Illinois Coals:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 54, p. 185-192.

 

Trimble, A.S., and Hower, J.C., Studies of the Relationship Between Coal Petrology and Grinding Properties:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 54, p. 253-260.

 

Sakulpitakphon, T., Hower, J.C., Trimble, A.S., Thomas, G.A., and Schram, W.H., Arsenic and Mercury Partitioning in Fly Ash at a Kentucky Power Plant:  Energy & Fuels, v. 17, p. 1028-1033.

 

Greb, S.F., Andrews, W.A.,, Eble, C.F.,  DiMichele, W.,  Cecil, C.B., Hower, J.C., Desmoinesian coals of the Illinois and surrounding basins: the largest tropical peat mires in earth history,  in Chan, M.A., and Archer, A.W. (Eds.), Extreme Depositional Environments: Mega-end members in Geologic Time: Geological Society of America, Special Publication 370, p. 127-150.

                                                                                                               

Mastalerz  M., Schimmelmann, A.,  Hower,  J. C., Lis,  G.,  Hatch, J., and Jacobson,  S. R. , Chemical and isotopic properties of kukersites from Iowa and Estonia: Organic Geochemistry, v. 34, p.1419-1427.

 

2004:

Sakulpitakphon, T., Hower,  J.C.,  Schram, W.H., and Ward, C.R., Tracking Mercury from the Mine to the Power Plant: Geochemistry of the Manchester Coal Bed, Clay County, Kentucky:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 57, p. 127-141.

 

Hower, J.C., and Robertson, J.D., Chemistry and petrology of fly ash derived from the co-combustion of Western United States coal and tire-derived fuel: Fuel Processing Technology, v. 85, p. 359-377.

 

Hower, J.C., and Eble, C.F., Coal Facies Studies in the Eastern United States:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 58, p. 3-32.

 

Algeo, T.J., Schwark, L., and Hower, J.C., High-resolution stratigraphy and geochemistry of the Hushpuckney Core Shale (Swope Formation, Eastern Kansas): Implications for climato-environmental dynamics of the Late Pennsylvanian midcontinent seaway: Chemical Geology, v. 206, p. 259-288.      

 

Mardon, S.M., and Hower, J.C., Impact of coal properties on coal combustion by-product quality: Examples from a Kentucky power plant:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 59, p. 153-169.

 

Mastalerz, M., Hower, J.C., Mardon, S.M., Drobniak, A., and Lis, G., From in-situ coal to fly ash: Examples from Indiana mines and power plants:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 59, p. 171-192.

 

Groppo, J., Robl, T., and Hower, J.C., The beneficiation of coal combustion ash, in Energy, Waste, and the Environment - A Geochemical Perspective (R. Gieré and P. Stille, eds.): The Geological Society of London Special Publication 236, p. 247-262.

2005:

Hower, J.C., Suárez-Ruiz, I., and Mastalerz, M., An approach toward a combined scheme for the petrographic classification of fly ash: Revision and clarification: Energy & Fuels, v. 19, p. 653-655.

 

Hower, J.C., Ruppert, L.F., Eble, C.F., and Clark, W.L., Geochemistry, petrology, and palynology of the Pond Creek coal bed, northern Pike and southern Martin counties, Kentucky:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 62, p. 167-181.

 

Hower, J.C., Robl, T.L., Anderson, C., Thomas, G.A., Sakulpitakphon, T., Mardon, S.M., and Clark, W.L., Characteristics of coal utilization products (CUBs) from Kentucky power plants, with emphasis on Mercury content:  Fuel, v. 84, p. 1338-1350.

Greb, S.F., Eble, C.F., and Hower, J.C., Subtle structural influences on coal thickness and distribution: examples from the Stockton coal (Bolsovian), Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, U.S.A., in Warwick, P. (Ed.), Coal System Analysis, Geological Society of America, Special Publication 387, p. 31-50.

Hower, J.C., Eble, C.F., and Quick, J.C., Mercury in eastern Kentucky coal: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 62, p. 223-236.

Hower, J.C., Thomas, G.A., Mardon, S.M., and Trimble, A.S., Impact of co-combustion of petroleum coke and coal on fly ash quality: Case study of a Western Kentucky power plant:  Applied Geochemistry, v. 20, p. 1309-1319.

Ruppert, L.F., Hower, J., and Eble, C., Arsenic-bearing pyrite and marcasite in the Fire Clay coal bed, Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation, eastern Kentucky:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 63, p. 27-35.

Stewart, A.K., Massey, M., Padgett, P.L., Rimmer, S.M., and Hower, J.C., Influence of a basic intrusion on the vitrinite reflectance and chemistry of the Springfield (No. 5) coal, Harrisburg, IL: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 63, p. 58-67.

Hower, J.C., Mastalerz, M., Drobniak, A., Quick, J.C., Eble, C.F., and Zimmerer, M.J., Mercury content of the Springfield coal bed, Indiana and Kentucky: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 63, p. 205-227.

Brownfield, M.E., Cathcart, J.D., Affolter, R.H., Brownfield, I.K., Rice, C.A., O’Connor, J.T., Zielinski, R.A., Bullock, J.H., Jr., Hower, J.C., and Meeker, G.P., Characterization and modes of occurrence of elements in feed coal and coal combustion products from a power plant utilizing low-sulfur coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5271, 36 p.         

Myszkowska, A., Rajczyk, K., Hower, J., Coufal, R., Filtracja w mieszaninach popio»owo-óuólowych w wype»nieniach geotechnicznych.  Mikrostruktura powstajcych po»cze½ (Filtration in ash and slag mixes for geotechnical infill. Microstructure of created bindings):   12th International Conference "Ashes from Power Generation", October 12-14, 2005, Sopot, Poland.

 

2006:

Hower, J.C., Sakulpitakphon, T., Trimble, A.S., Thomas, G.A., and Schram, W.H.,  Major and Minor Element Distribution in Fly Ash from a Coal-fired Utility Boiler in Kentucky: Energy Sources, v. 28, p. 79–95.

Rimmer, S.M., Rowe, H.D., Taulbee, D.N., and Hower, J.C., Influence of maceral content on *13C and *15N in a Middle Pennsylvanian coal:  Chemical Geology, v. 225, p. 77-90.

Hower, J.C., Discussion: Li et al., Prediction of grindability with multivariable regression and neural network in Chinese coal: Fuel, v. 85, p. 1307-1308.

Shaver, S.A., Eble, C.F., Hower. J.C.,  and Saussy, F.L. Petrography, palynology, and paleoecology of the Lower Pennsylvanian Bon Air coal, Franklin County, southeast Tennessee, Cumberland Plateau:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 17, p. 17-46.

Shaver, S.A., Hower. J.C., Eble, C.F., McLamb, E.D., and Kuers, K., Trace element geochemistry and surface water chemistry of the Bon Air coal, Franklin County, southeast Tennessee, Cumberland Plateau:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 17, p. 47-78.

Rubel, A.M., Hower, J.C., Mardon, S.M., and Zimmerer, M.J., Thermal Stability of Mercury Captured by Ash: Fuel, v. 85, p. 2509-2515.

O’Hara, K., Mizoguchi , K., Shimamoto, T., and Hower, J.C.,  Experimental frictional heating and thermal pressurization of coal gouge at seismic slip rates: insight into earthquake fault mechanics: Tectonophysics, v. 424,  p. 109-118.

Crelling, J., Glickson, M., Huggett, W., Borrego, M.A.G., Hower, J., Ligouis, B., Mastalerz, M., Misz, M., Suárez-Ruiz, I., Valentim, B., Atlas of anthropogenic particles: International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (published by Indiana Geological Survey), cd-rom.

 

2007:

Hower, J.C., Ruppert, L.F., and Eble, C.F., Lateral variation in geochemistry, petrology, and palynology in the Elswick coal bed, Pike County, Kentucky:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 69, p. 165-178.

Suárez-Ruiz, I., Hower, J.C., and Thomas, G.A., Hg and Se Capture and Fly Ash Carbons from Combustion of Complex Pulverized Feed Blends Mainly of Anthracitic Coal Rank in Spanish Power Plants: Energy & Fuels, v. 21, p. 59-70.

Hower, J.C., Robertson, J.D., Elswick, E.R., Roberts, J.M., Brandsteder, K., Trimble, A.S., and Mardon, S.M., Further Investigation of the Impact of the Co-combustion of Tire-derived Fuel and Petroleum Coke on the Petrology and Chemistry of Coal Combustion Products: Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, v. 29, p. 431-461.

Walker, R., Mastalerz, M., Brassell, S., Elswick, E., Hower, J.C., Schimmelmann, A., Chemistry of thermally altered high volatile bituminous coals from southern Indiana: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 71, p. 2-14.

Hower, J.C., Suárez-Ruiz, I., Mastalerz, M., and Cook, A.C., Discussion: The investigation of chemical structure of coal macerals via transmitted-light FT-IR microscopy by X. Sun:  Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, v. 67, p. 1433-1437.

Elswick, E.R., Hower, J.C., Carmo, A.M., Sun, T., Mardon, S.M., Sulfur and Carbon isotope geochemistry of coals and derived combustion by-products: An example from an eastern Kentucky power plant: Applied Geochemistry, v. 22, p. 2065-2077.

 

2008:                                                                                                                                                                                                       

Hower, J.C., Maceral/ Microlithotype Partitioning with Particle Size of Pulverized Coal: Examples from Power Plants Burning Central Appalachian and Illinois Basin Coals:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 73, p. 213-218.

 

Bagherieh, A.H., Hower, J.C., Bagherieh, A.R. and Jorjani, E., Studies of the relationship between Petrography and Grindability for Kentucky coals using artificial neural network: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 73, p. 130-138.

 

Chelgani, S. C. , Hower, J.C.,  Jorjani, E.,  Mesroghli,  Sh. and Bagherieh, A.H., Prediction of coal grindability based on petrography, proximate and ultimate analysis using multiple regression and artificial neural network models: Fuel Processing Technology, v. 89, p. 13-20.                                          

 

Jorjani, E., Hower, J.C., Chelgani, S.C., Shirazi, M.A., Mesroghli, Sh., Studies of relationship between petrography and elemental analysis with Grindability for Kentucky coals: Fuel, v. 87, p. 707-713.

Hower, J.C., Valentim, B., Kostova, I.J., Henke, K.R., Discussion on “Characteristics of Fly Ashes from Full-Scale Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Relationship to Mercury Adsorption” by Lu et al.: Energy & Fuels, v. 22, p. 1055-1058.

Goodarzi, F., and Hower, J.C., Classification of carbon in Canadian fly ashes and their implications in the capture of mercury: Fuel, v. 87, p. 1949-1957.      

Hower, J.C., Campbell, J.L., Teesdale, W.J., Nejedly, Z., and Robertson, J.D., Scanning proton microprobe analysis of mercury and other trace elements in Fe-sufides from a Kentucky coal:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 75, p. 88-92.

Hower, J.C., Trinkle, E.J., and Raione, R., Vickers Microhardness of Telovitrinite and Pseudovitrinite from High Volatile Bituminous Kentucky Coals:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 75, p. 76-80.

Hower, J.C., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Eble, C.F., Tales from a Distant Swamp: Petrological and Paleobotanical Clues for the Origin of the Sand Coal Lithotype (Mississippian, Valley Fields, Virginia):  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 75, p. 119-126.

O’Keefe, J.M.K., Shultz,  M.G., Rimmer, S.M.,  Hower, J.C.,  and Popp, J.T., Paradise (and Herrin) Lost: Marginal Depositional Settings of the Herrin and Paradise Coals, Western Kentucky Coalfield:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 75, p. 144-156.

Valentim, B., Hower, J.C., Flores, D., Guedes, A., Notes on the efficacy of wet versus dry screening of fly ash: Minerals & Metallurgical Processing, v. 25, p. 143-148.

Mardon, S.M., Hower, J.C., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Marks, M.N., Hedges, D.H., Coal combustion by-product quality at two stoker boilers: Coal source versus fly ash collection system design:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 75, p. 248-254.

Algeo, T., Rowe, H., Hower, J., Schwark, L., Herrmann, A., and Heckel, P., Changes in ocean denitrification during Late Carboniferous glacial-interglacial cycles:  Nature Geoscience, v. 1,  p. 709-714.

Hower, J.C., Graham, U.M., Dozier, A., Tseng, M.T., Khatri, R.A., Association of sites of heavy metals with nanoscale carbon in a Kentucky electrostatic precipitator fly ash: Environmental Science & Technology, v. 42, p. 8471-8477.

O’Keefe, J.M., Esterle, J.S., Hower J.C., Dai, S., Discussion: “Comments on the Maturation of Coals” by Vinay K. Sahay:  Search and Discovery, Article #70050, <http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/documents/2008/08233okeefe/images/howe....

Ketris M.P., Yudovich Ya.E., and Hower J.C., Coal Inorganics: Analytical Bibliography, 1800-2006:  Syktyvkar: Geoprint, 252 pp. (in Russian)

 

 

2009:

Belkin, H.E., Tewalt, S.J., Hower, J.C., Stucker, J.D., and O’Keefe, J.M.K., Geochemistry and petrology of selected coal samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 77,  p. 260-268.

 

Sweeney, I.J., Chin, K., Hower, J.C., Budd, D.A., and Wolfe, D.G., Fossil Wood from the Moreno Hill Formation: Unique Expressions of Wood Mineralization and Implications for the Processes of Wood Preservation:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 79, p. 1-17.

 

Rimmer, S.M., Yoksoulian, L.E., Hower, J.C., Anatomy of an Intruded Coal, I: Effect of contact metamorphism on whole-coal geochemistry, Springfield (No. 5) (Pennsylvanian) coal, Illinois Basin:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 79,  p. 74-82.

 

Hower, J.C., Greb, S.F., Kuehn, K.W., Eble, C.F., Did the Middlesboro, Kentucky, bolide impact event influence coal rank?: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 79,  p. 92-96.

 

Modarres, H.R., Kor, M., Abkhoshk, E., Alfi, A., Hower, J.C., Prediction of coal grindability based on petrography, proximate and ultimate analysis using neural networks and particle swarm optimization technique: Energy Exploration & Exploitation, v. 27, p. 201-212.

 

Hower, J.C., Henke, K., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Engle, M.A., Blake, D.R., and Stracher. G.B., The Tiptop coal-mine fire, Kentucky: Preliminary investigation of the measurement of mercury and other hazardous gases from coal-fire gas vents:   International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 80, p. 63-67.

 

Hower, J.C., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Watt, M.A., Pratt, T.J., Eble, C.F., Stucker, J.D., Richardson, A.R.., Kostova, I.J., Notes on the origin of inertinite macerals in coals:  Observations on the importance of fungi in the origin of macrinite:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 80, p. 135-143.

 

Valentim, B., Hower, J.C., Soares, S., Guedes, A., Garcia, C., Flores, D., Olibeira, Á., Petrographic characterization of economizer fly ash: Minerals & Metallurgical Processing, v. 26, p. 174-182.

 

Valentim, B., Guedes, A., Flores, D., Ward, C.R., Hower, J.C., Variations in fly ash composition with sampling location: Case study from a Portuguese power plant:  Coal Combustion & Gasification Products, v. 1, p. 14-24. 

http://www.coalcgp-journal.org/papers/2009/CCGP-D-09-00017-Valentim.pdf

 

Hower, J.C., Robl, T.L., Thomas, G.A., Hopps, S.D., Grider, M., Chemistry of coal and coal combustion products from  Kentucky power plants:   Results from the 2007 sampling, with emphasis on selenium:  Coal Combustion & Gasification Products, v. 1, p. 50-62. http://www.coalcgp-journal.org/papers/2009/CCGP-D-09-00013-Hower-supp.pdf

 

Valentim, B., Hower, J.C., Guedes, A., Flores, D., Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of low-sulfur coal fly ash:  International Journal of Energy for a Clean Environment, v. 10, p. 147-166.

 

Stracher, G.B., Finkelman, R.B., Hower, J.C., Pone, J.D.N., Prakash, A., Blake, D.R., Schroeder, P.A., Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Natural and anthropogenic coal fires: In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Cutler J. Cleveland, Washington, D.C., Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment. http://www.eoearth.org/article/Natural_and_anthropogenic_coal_fires

 

Counts, R., Denney, F.B., Devera, J.A., Hower, J.C.,, Lasemi, Z., Norby, R.D., Potter, P.E., Wanninger, S., Williams, D.A., The Mississippian section at Paddys Bluff, Crittenden County, Kentucky.  Kentucky Geological Survey, Series XII, Map and Chart 195.

 

2010:

Ruppert, L.F., Hower, J.H., Levine, J.R., Ryder, R.T., Trippi, M.H., Grady, W.C., Geologic controls on thermal maturity patterns in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing rocks in the Appalachian basin:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 81, p. 169-181.

 

O’Keefe, J.M.K., Henke, K., Hower, J.C., Engle, M.A., Stracher, G.B., Stucker, J.D., Drew, J.W., Staggs, W.D., Murray, T.M., Hammond, M.L., III, Adkins, K.D., Mullins, B.J., Lemley, E.W., CO, CO2, and Hg emission rates from the Truman Shepherd and Ruth Mullins coal fires, Eastern Kentucky:  Science of the Total Environment, v. 408, p. 1628-1633.

 

Belkin, H.E., Tewalt, S.J., Hower, J.C., Stucker, J.D, O’Keefe, J.M.K., Tatu, C.A., Buia, G., Geochemistry and  petrography of Oligocene bituminous coal from the Jiu Valley, Petrosani basin (Southern Carpathian mountains), Romania:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 82, p. 68-80.

 

Valentim, B., Hower, J.C., Influence of feed and sampling systems on element partitioning in Kentucky fly ash: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 82, p. 94-104.

 

Hower, J.C., Senior, C.L., Suuberg, E.M., Hurt, R.H., Wilcox, J.L., Olson, E.S., Mercury capture by native fly ash carbons in coal-fired power plants:  Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, v. 36, p. 510-529.

 

Andrews, R.J., Rantell, T., Jacques, D., Hower, J.C., Gardner, J.S., Amick, M., Mild coal extraction for the production of anode coke from Blue Gem coal:  Fuel, v. 89, p. 2640-2647.

 

Hower, J.C., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Volk, T.J., Watt, M.A., Funginite-resinite associations in coal:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 83, p. 64-72.

 

Chelgani, S. C. , Mesroghli, Sh., Hower, J.C., Simultaneous prediction of coal rank parameters based on ultimate analysis using regression and artificial neural network:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 83, p. 31-34.

 

Silva, L.F.O., Hower, J.C., Izquierdo, M., Querol, X., Complex nanominerals and ultrafine particles assemblages in phosphogypsum of the fertilizer industry and implications on human exposure:  Science of the Total Environment, v. 408, p. 5117-5122.

 

Silva, L.F.O., Ward, C.R., Hower, J.C., Izquierdo, M., Waanders, F., Oliveira, M.L.S., Li, Z., Hatch, R., Querol, X., Mineralogy and leaching characteristics of coal ash from principal Brazilian power plant:  Coal Combustion & Gasification Products, v. 2, p. 51-65.

 

Hower, J.C., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Esterle, J.S., Dai, S., Richardson, A.R., Satterwhite, A.B., Discussion:  “On the fundamental relationship between coal rank and coal type” by Vinay K. Sahay:  Geological Society of India Journal, v. 76, p. 420.

 

Mendonça Filho, J.G., Araujo, C.V., Borrego, A.G., Cook, A., Flores, D., Hackley, P., Hower, J.C., Kern, M.L., Kommeren, K., Kus, J., Mastalerz, M., Mendonça, J.O., Menezes, T.R., Newman, J., Ranasinghe, P., Souza, I.V.A.F., Suarez-Ruiz, I., Ujiié, Y., Effect of concentration of dispersed organic matter on optical maturity parameters: Interlaboratory results of the organic matter concentration working group of the ICCP:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 84, p. 154-165.

 

Silva, L.F.O., DaBoit, K., Serra, C., Mardon, S.M., Hower, J.C., Fullerenes and metallofullerenes in coal-fired stoker fly ash:  Coal Combustion & Gasification Products, v. 2, p. 66-79.

 

Valentim, B., Guedes, A., Flores, D., Ward, C.R., Hower, J.C., Variações na composição das cinzas volantes à localização da amostragem:  Estudo de um caso de uma Central Termoeléctrica Portuguesa:  X Congresso de Geoquímica dos Países de Língua Portugeusa/XVI Semana de Geoquímica

 

Valentim, B., Hower, J.C., Influência do tipo de carvão e dos sistemas di amostragem na distribuição elementar em cinzas volantes do Kentucky:  X Congresso de Geoquímica dos Países de Língua Portugeusa/XVI Semana de Geoquímica

 

2011:

Querol, X., Zhuang, X., Font, O., Izquierdo, M., Alastuey, A., Castro, I., Drooge, B.L. van, Moreno, T., Grimalt, J.O., Elvira, J., Cabañas, M., Bartroli, R., Hower, J.C., Ayora, C., Plana, F., López-Soler, A., Influence of soil cover on reducing the environmental impact of spontaneous coal combustion in coal waste gobs: A review and new experimental data: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 85, p. 2-22.

 

O’Keefe, J.M.K., Hower, J.C., Revisiting Coos Bay, Oregon:  A re-examination of funginite-huminite relationships in Eocene subbituminous coals:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 85, p. 34-42.

 

Khorami, M.T., Chelgani, S. C. , Hower, J.C., Jorjani, E., Studies of relationships between Free Swelling Index (FSI) and coal quality by regression and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 85, p. 65-71.

 

Hower, J.C., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Eble, C.F., Volk, T.J., Richardson, A.R., Satterwhite, A.B., Hatch, R.S., Kostova, I.J., Notes on the origin of inertinite macerals in coal:  Funginite associations with cutinite and suberinite:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 85, p. 186-190.

 

Kostova, I.J., Hower, J.C., Mastalerz, M., Vassilev, S.V., Mercury capture by selected Bulgarian fly ashes:  Influence of coal rank and fly ash carbon pore structure on carbon efficiency:  Applied Geochemistry, v. 26, p. 18-27.

 

Silva, L.F.O., Oliveira, M.L.S., Neace, E.R., O’Keefe, J.M.K, Henke, K.R., Hower, J.C., Nanominerals and ultrafine particles in sublimates from the Ruth Mullins coal fire, Perry County, Eastern Kentucky, USA:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 85, p. 237-245.

 

Hower, J.C., Ruppert, L.F., Splint coals of the Central Appalachians:  Petrographic and geochemical facies of the Peach Orchard No. 3 split coal bed, southern Magoffin County, Kentucky:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 85, p. 268-273.

 

Chelgani, S. C. , Hower, J.C., Hart, B., Estimation of free-swelling index based on coal analysis using multiple regression and artificial neural network models:  Fuel Processing Technology, v. 92, p. 349-355.

 

Dai, S., Wang, X., Zhou, Y., Hower, J.C., Li, D., Chen W., Zhu, X., Zou, J., Chemical and mineralogical compositions of silicic, mafic, and alkali tonsteins in the late Permian coals from the Songzao coalfield, southwest China:  Chemical Geology, v. 282, 29-44.

 

Kostova, I., Vassileva, C., Hower, J., Mastalerz, M., Vassilev, S., Nikolava, N., Mercury in coals and fly ashes from Republika and Bobov Dol thermoelectric power plants:  Comptes rendus de l'Académie bulgare des Sciences, v. 64, p. 253-262.

 

Demirkan, M.,  Aydilek, A.H.,  Seagren, E.A., Hower, J.C., Naphthalene and O-xylene Adsorption onto High Carbon Fly Ash: ASCE J of Environmental Engineering, v. 137, p. 377-387.

 

Mendonça Filho, J.G., Araujo, C.V., Borrego, A.G., Cook, A., Flores, D., Hackley, P., Hower, J.C., Kern, M.L., Kommeren, K., Kus, J., Mastalerz, M., Mendonça, J.O., Menezes, T.R., Newman, J., Ranasinghe, P., Souza, I.V.A.F., Suarez-Ruiz, I., Ujiié, Y., Reply to Effect of concentration of dispersed organic matter on optical maturity parameters: Interlaboratory results of the organic matter concentration working group of the ICCP. Discussion by Vinay K.. Sahay:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 86, p. 289-290.

 

Hower, J.C., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Eble, C.F., Raymond, A., Valentim, B., Volk, T.J., Richardson, A.R., Satterwhite, A.B., Hatch, R.S., Stucker, J.D., Watt, M.A., Notes on the origin of inertinite macerals in coal:  Evidence for fungal and arthropod transformations of degraded macerals:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 86, p. 231-240.

 

Chelgani, S. C., Hart, B., Grady, W. C., Hower, J. C., Study relationship between inorganic and organic coal analysis with gross calorific value by multiple regression and ANFIS. International Journal of Coal Preparation and Utilization, 31, 9-19.

 

O’Keefe, J.M.K., Neace, E.R., Lemley, E.W., Hower, J.C., Henke, K.R., Copley, G., Hatch, R.S., Satterwhite, A.B., Blake, D.R., Old Smokey coal fire, Floyd County, Kentucky:  Estimates of gaseous emission rates:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 87, p. 150-156.

 

O’Keefe, J.M.K., Hower, J.C., Finkelman, R.B., Drew, J.W., Stucker, J.D., Petrographic, geochemical, and mycological aspects of Miocene coals from the Nováky and Handlová mining districts, Slovakia:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 87, p. 268-281.

 

Silva, L.F.O., Oliveira, M.L.S., Serra, C., Hower, J.C., Zinc speciation in power plant burning mixtures of coal and tires:  Coal Combustion & Gasification Products, v. 3, p. 35-44.

 

Chelgani, S. C. ,, Dehghan, F., Hower, J.C., Estimation of some coal parameters depending on petrographic and inorganic analyses using Genetic algorithm and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems:  Energy Exploration & Exploitation, v. 29, p. 479-494.

 

Oliveira, M.L.S., Waanders, F., Silva, L.F.O., Jasper, A., Sampaio, C.H., McHabe, D., Hatch, R.S., Hower, J.C., A multi-analytical approach to understand the chemistry of Fe-minerals in feed coals and ashes:  Coal Combustion & Gasification Products, v. 3, p. 52-62.

 

Engle, M.A., Radke, L.F., Heffern, E.L., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Smeltzer, C.D., Hower, J.C., Hower, J.M., Prakash, A., Kolker, A., Eatwell, R.J., ter Schure, A., Queen, G., Aggen, K.L., Stracher, G.B., Henke, K.R., Olea, R.A., Román-Colón, Y., Quantifying  CO2 emissions from coal fires using airborne and ground-based methods:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 88, p. 147-151.

 

Hower, J.C., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Henke, K.R., Bagherieh, A., Time series analysis of CO emissions from an Eastern

Kentucky coal fire:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 88, p. 227-231.

 

Green, U., Aizenshtat, Z., Hower, J.C., Hatch, R., Cohen, H., Modes of Formation of Carbon Oxides [COx (x = 1 or 2)] from Coals during Atmospheric Storage. Part 2: Effect of Coal Rank on the Kinetics:  Energy & Fuels 25, 5626-5631.

 

Mastalerz, M., Drobniak, A., Hower, J.C, O’Keefe, J.M., Spontaneous combustion and coal petrology:  In G.B. Stracher et al., Coal and peat fires:  A global perspective, v. 1, Elsevier, p. 47-62.

 

Affolter, R.H., Groves, Steve, Betterton, W.J., Benzel, William, Conrad, K.L., Swanson, S.M., Ruppert L.F., Clough J.G., Belkin, H.E., Kolker, Allan, and Hower, J.C., 2011, Geochemical database of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from five power plants in the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 635, pamphlet, 19 p.

 

 

2012:

Silva, L.F.O., DaBoit, K., Sampaio, C.H., Jasper, A., Andrade, M.L.,  Kostova, I.J., Waanders, F.B., Henke, K.R., Hower, J.C., The occurrence of hazardous volatile elements and nanoparticles in Bulgarian coal fly ashes and the effect on human health exposure:  The Science of the Total Environment, v. 416, p. 513-526.

 

Hower, J.C., Richard Cowling Taylor:  Founder of Appalachian coal geology:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 90-91, p. 180-184.

 

Dai, S., Wang, X., Seredin, V.V., Hower, J.C., Ward, C.R.,  O’Keefe, J.M.K., Li, T., Li, X., Liu, H., Xue, W., Zhao, L., Petrology, mineralogy, and geochemistry of the Ge-rich coal from the Wulantuga Ge ore deposit, Inner Mongolia, China:  New data for genetic implications:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 90-91, p. 72-90.

 

Silva, L.F.O., Jasper, A., Andrade, M.L., Sampaio, C.H., Dai, S., Li., X., Li, T., Chen, W., Wang, X., Liu, H., Zhao, L., Hopps, S.G., Jewell, R.F., Hower, J.C., Applied investigation on the interaction of hazardous elements binding on ultrafine and nanoparticles in Chinese anthracite-derived fly ash:  The Science of the Total Environment, v. 419, 250-264.

 

Hower, J.C., Petrographic examination of coal-combustion fly ash:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 92, 90-97.

 

Algeo, T., Henderson, C.M., Ellwood, B, Rowe, H., Elswick, E., Bates, S., Lyons, T., Hower, J.C., Smith, C., Maynard, B., Hays, L.E., Summons, R.E., Fulton, J., Freeman, K.H., Evidence for a diachronous Late Permian marine crisis from the Canadian Arctic region:  Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 124, p. 1424-1448.  doi: 10.1130/B30505.1

 

Engle, M.A., Radke, L.F., Heffern, E.L., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Hower, J.C., Smeltzer, C.D., Hower, J.M., Olea, R.A., Eatwell, R.J.,  Blake, D.R.,Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D., Stout, S.A., Queen, G., Aggen, K.L., Kolker, A., Prakash, A.,  Henke, K.R., Stracher, G.B., Schroeder, P.A., Román-Colón, Y., ter Schure, A., Gas emissions, minerals, and tars associated with three coal fires, Powder River Basin, USA: The Science of the Total Environment, v. 420, 146-159.

 

Hower, J.C., Wagner, N.J., Notes on the methods of the combined maceral/microlithotype determination in coal:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 95, p. 47-53.

 

Bayan, M.R., Hower, J.C., Illite crystallinity and coal metamorphism for selected central Appalachian coals and shales:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 94, p. 167-172.

 

Silva, L.F.O., Oliveira, M.L.S., Philippi, V., Serra, C., Dai, S., Xue, W., Chen, W., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Romanek, C.S., Hopps, S.G., Hower, J.C., Geochemistry of carbon nanotube assemblages in coal fire soot, Ruth Mullins fire, Perry County, Kentucky:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 94, p. 206-213.

 

Oliveira, M.L.S., Ward, C.W., French, D., Hower, J.C., Querol, X., Silva, L.F.O., Mineralogy and leaching characteristics of beneficiated coal products from Santa Catarina, Brazil:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 94, p. 314-325.

 

Richardson, A.R., Eble, C.F., Hower, J.C., O’Keefe, J,M.K.,  A critical re-examination of the petrology of the No. 5 Block coal in eastern Kentucky with special attention to the origin of inertinite macerals in the splint lithotypes:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 98, p. 41-49.

 

Hower, J.C., Wagner, N.J., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Drew, J.W., Stucker, J.D., Richardson, A.R., Maceral types in some Permian southern Africa coals:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 100, p. 93-107.

Hower, J.C., Copley, G.C., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Hower, J.M., The further adventures of Tin Man: Vertical temperature gradients at the Lotts Creek coal mine fire, Perry County, Kentucky: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 101, p. 16-20.

 

Davis, B.H., and Hower, J.C., Coal technology for power, liquid fuels, and chemicals. J.A. Kent (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Chemistry and Biotechnology (12th ed.), Volume 1, Chapter 19, New York, Springer Science + Business Media, p. 749-805.

 

 

2013:

Dai, S., Zhang, W., Ward. C.R., Seredin, V.V., Hower, J.C., Li, X., Song, W., Wang, X., Kang, H., Zheng, L., Wang, P., Zhou, D., Mineralogical and geochemical anomalies of late Permian coals from the Fusui Coalfield, Guangxi Province, southern China: Influences of terrigenous materials and hydrothermal fluids:   International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 105, p. 60-84.

 

Dai, S., Zhang, W., Seredin, V.V., Ward. C.R., Hower, J.C., Song, W.,  Wang, X., Li, X., Zhao, L., Kang, H., Zheng, L., Wang, P., Zhou, D.,  Factors controlling geochemical and mineralogical compositions of coals preserved within marine carbonate successions: a case study from the Heshan Coalfield, southern China:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v.109-110, p. 77-100.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2013.02.003

 

Silva, L.F.O., Oliveira, M.L.S., Sampaio, C.H., de Brum, I.A.S., Hower, J.C., Vanadium and nickel speciation in pulverized coal and petroleum coke co-combustion:  Energy & Fuels, v. 27, p. 1194-1203.

 

Kronbauer, M.A., Izquierdo, M., Dai, S., Waanders, F.B., Wagner, N.J., Mastalerz , M., Hower, J.C.,  Oliveira, M.L.S.,  Taffarel, S.R., Bizani, D., Silva, L.F.O., Geochemistry of ultra-fine and nano-compounds in coal gasification ashes: A synoptic view: The Science of the Total Environment, v. 456-457, p.  95-103.

 

Engle, M.A., Olea, R.A., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Hower, J.C., Geboy, N.L., Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires:  Current methods and future directions:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 112, p. 164-172.

 

Hower, J.C., Dai, S., Seredin, V.V., Zhao, L., Kostova, I.J., Silva, L.F.O., Mardon, S.M., Gurdal, G., A note on the occurrence of Yttrium and Rare Earth Elements in coal combustion products:  Coal Combustion and Gasification Products, v. 5, p. 39-47.

 

Geboy, N.J., Engle, M.A., Hower, J.C., Whole-coal versus ash basis in coal geochemistry: A mathematical approach to consistent interpretations:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 113, p. 41-49. 

 

Hower, J.C., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Wagner, N.J., Dai, S., Wang, X., Xue, W., An investigation of Wulantuga coal (Cretaceous, Inner Mongolia) macerals: Paleopathology of faunal and fungal invasions into wood and the recognizable clues for their activity:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 114, p. 44-53.

 

Hower, J.C., Hoffman, G.K., Garrison, T.M., Macrinite and funginite forms in Cretaceous Menefee Formation anthracite, Cerrillos coalfield, New Mexico:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 114, p. 54-59. 

 

Valentim, B.V.,  Hower, J.C., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Rodrigues, S., Ribeiro, J., Guedes, A., Notes on the origin of altered macerals in the Ragged Edge of the Pennsylvanian (Asturian) Herrin coalbed, Western Kentucky: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 115, p. 24-40.

 

Hower, J.C., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Henke, K.R., Wagner, N.J., Copley, G., Blake, D.R., Garrison, T.M., Oliveira, M.L.S., Kautzmann, R.M., Silva, L.F.O., Gaseous emissions from the Truman Shepherd coal fire, Floyd County, Kentucky:  A re-investigation following attempted mitigation of the fire:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 116-117, p. 63-74.

 

Hower, J.C., Misz-Keenan, M., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Mastalerz, M., Eble, C.F., Garrison, T.M., Johnston, M.N., Stucker, J.D. Macrinite forms in Pennsylvanian coals.  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 116-117, p. 172-181.

 

Wang, X-C, Shaaban, K.A., Elshahawi, S.I., Ponomareva, L. V., Sunkara, M., Zhang, Y-N, Copley, G.C., Hower, J.C., Morris, A.J., Kharel, M.K., Thorson, J.S., Frenolicins C‒F, Pyranonaphthoquinones from Streptomyces sp. RM-4-15: Journal of Natural Products, v. 76, p. 1441-1447.

 

Schoepfer, S. D., Henderson, C. M., Garrison, G. H., Foriel, J., Ward, P. D., Selby, D., Hower, J.C., Algeo, T.J. Shen, Y., Termination of a continent-margin upwelling system at the Permian-Triassic boundary (Opal Creek, Alberta, Canada). Global and Planetary Change, v. 105, p. 21-35. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.07.005

 

Kostova, I., Vassileva, C., Dai, S., Hower, J.C., Apostolova, D., Influence of surface area properties on mercury capture behavior of coal fly ashes from some Bulgarian power plants:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 116-117, p. 227-235. 

 

O’Keefe, J.M.K., Bechtel, A., Christanis, K., Dai, S., DiMichele, W.A., Eble, C.F., Esterle, J.S., Mastalerz, M., Raymond, A.L, Valentim, B.V., Wagner, N.J., Ward, C.R., Hower, J.C., On the fundamental difference between coal rank and coal type:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 118, p. 58-87.

 

Shaaban, K.A., Wang, X-C, Elshahawi, S.I., Ponomareva, L. V., Sunkara, M., Copley, G.C., Hower, J.C., Morris, A.J., Kharel, M.K., Thorson, J.S.,  Herbimycins D‒F, Ansamycin analogues from Streptomyces sp. RM-4-15: Journal of Natural Products, v. 76, p. 1619-1626.

 

Shaaban, K.A., Singh, S., Elshahawi, S.I., Wang, X-C, Ponomareva, L. V., Sunkara, M., Copley, G.C., Hower, J.C., Morris, A.J., Kharel, M.K., Thorson, J.S.,  The Native Production of the Sesquiterpene Isopterocarpolone by Streptomyces sp. RM-14-6: Natural Product Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2013.855932

 

Shaaban, K.A., Singh, S., Elshahawi, S.I., Wang. X., Ponomareva, L. V., Sunkara, M., Copley, G.C., Hower, J.C., Morris, A.J., Kharel, M.K., Thorson, J.S., Venturicidin C, A New 20-Membered Macrolide Produced by Streptomyces sp. TS-2-2: Journal of Antibiotics, doi:10.1038/ja.2013.113.

 

Mastalerz, M., Hower, J.C., Taulbee, D.N., Variations in the chemistry of macerals as reflected by micro-scale analysis of a Spanish coal.  Geologica Acta, v. 11, p, 483-493.

 

Hower, J.C., Groppo, J.G., Joshi, P., Dai, S., Moecher, D.P., Johnston, M.N., Location of Cerium in Coal-combustion Fly Ashes:  Implications for Recovery of Lanthanides:  Coal Combustion & Gasification Products, v. 5, p. 73-78.

 

Hower, J.C., Stanton, R.W., Gammidge, L., Hutton, A.C., Cook, A.C., Diessel, C.F.K., Hackley, P.C., Karayigit, A.I., Kwiecinska, B.K., Seredin, V., Suarez-Ruiz, I., Zdravkov, A., Coal Petrology: in Papp, A.R., Hower, J.C., Peters, D.C., editors,  Atlas of Coal Geology, 2nd edition;  American Association of Petroleum Geologists Datapages Discovery Series No. 17.

 

Papp, A.R., Hower, J.C., Peters, D.C., editors, Atlas of Coal Geology, 2nd edition; American Association of Petroleum Geologists Datapages Discovery Series No. 17.

 

Robl, T., Oberlink, A., Groppo, J., Henke, K., Hower, J., Coal combustion ash processing technologies:  A review of the current status and future potential:  National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Cooperative Research Network Project 12-04, 48 p.

 

2014:

Saikia, B.K., Ward, C.R., Oliveira, M.L.S., Hower, J.C., Baruah, B.P., Braga, M., Silva, L.F., Geochemistry and nano-mineralogy of two medium-sulfur northeast Indian coals:  International Journal of Coal Geology, vol. 121, p. 26-34.

 

Dai, S., Li. T., Seredin, V.V., Ward, C.R., Hower, J.C., Zhou, Y., Zhang, M., Song, X., Song, W., Origin of minerals and elements in the Late Permian coals, tonsteins, and host rocks of the Xinde Mine, Xuanwei, eastern Yunnan, China: International Journal of Coal Geology, vol. 121, p. 53-78.

 

Dai, S., Seredin, V.V., Ward, C.R., Jian, J., Hower, J.C., Song, X., Jiang, Y., Wang, X., Gornostaeva, T., Liu. H., Zhao, L., Composition and modes of occurrence of minerals and elements in coal combustion products derived from high-Ge coals:  International Journal of Coal Geology, vol. 121, p. 79-97.

 

Dias, C.L., Oliviera, M.L.S.,  Hower, J.C., Taffarel, S.R. Kautzman, R.M., Silva, L.F.O., Nanominerals and ultrafine particles from coal fires from Santa Catarina, south Brazil:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 122, p. 50-60.

 

Dai, S., Luo, Y., Seredin, V.V., Ward, C.R., Hower, J.C., Zhao, L., Liu, S., Tian, H., Zou, J., Revisiting the late Permian coal from the Huayinshang, Sichuan, southwestern China: Enrichment and occurrence modes of minerals and trace elements: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 122, p. 110-128.

 

Wang, X., Elshahawi, S., Shaaban, K., Fang, L., Ponomareva, L., Zhang, Y., Copley, G., Hower, J., Zhan, C, Kharel, M., Thorson, J., Ruthmycin, a novel tetracyclic polyketide from Streptomyces sp. RM-4-15:  Organic Letters, v. 16, p. 456-459.

 

Dai, S., Zhao, L., Hower, J.C., Johnston, M.N., Song, W., Wang, P., Zhang, S., Petrology, mineralogy, and chemistry of size-fractioned fly ash from the Jungar power plant, Inner Mongolia, China, with emphasis on the distribution of rare earth elements:  Energy & Fuels, vol. 28, p. 1502–1514.

 

Ciesielczuk, J., Misz-Kennan, M., Hower, J.C., Fabiańska, M., Mineralogy and geochemistry of coal wastes from Starzykowiec coal-waste dump (Upper Silesia, Poland): International Journal of Coal Geology, vol. 127, p. 42-55.

 

Mardon, S.M., Eble, C.F., Hower, J.C., Takacs, K.M., Mastalerz, M., Bustin, R.M., Organic Petrology, Geochemistry, Gas Content and Gas Composition of Middle Pennsylvanian age coal beds in the Eastern Interior (Illinois) Basin: Implications for CBM development and Carbon Sequestration:  International Journal of Coal Geology, vol. 127, p. 56-74.

 

Wang, X., Shaaban, K.A., Elshahawi, S.I., Ponomareva, L.V., Sunkara, M., Copley, G.C., Hower, J.C., Morris, A., Kharel, M.K., Thorson, J.S., Mullinamides A and B, New Cyclopeptides Produced by the Ruth Mullins Coal Mine Fire Isolate Streptomyces sp. RM-27-46: Journal of Antibiotics, doi:10.1038/ja.2014.37.

 

Cutruneo, C.M.N.L., Oliveira, M.L.S., Ward, C.R., Hower, J.C., de Brum, I.A.S., Sampaio, C.H., Kautzmann, R.M., Taffarel, S.R., Teixeira, E.C., Silva, L.F.O., A mineralogical and geochemical study of three Brazilian coal cleaning rejects: Demonstration of electron beam applications: International Journal of Coal Geology, vol. 130, p. 33-52.

 

Johnston, M.N., Hower, J.C., Rich, F.J., Notes on the origin of the resinite-rich “pine needle” lithotype of the Cretaceous Cambria coal, Weston County, Wyoming:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 130, p. 66-69.

 

Araujo, C.V., Borrego, A.G., Cardott, B., Chagas, R.B.A. das, Flores, D., Gonçalves, P., Hackley, P.C., Hower, J.C., Kern, M.L., Kus, J., Mastalerz, M., Mendonça Filho, J.G., Mendonça, J.O., Menezes, T.R. , Newman, J., Suarez-Ruiz, I., Sobrinho da Silva, F., Viegas de Souza, I., Petrographic thermal indices of a Devonian shale maturation series, Appalachian Basin, USA. ICCP Thermal Indices Working Group interlaboratory exercise:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 130, p. 89-101.

 

Hansen, A.E., Hower, J.C., Notes on the relationship between microlithotype composition and Hardgrove grindability index for rank suites of Eastern Kentucky (Central Appalachian) coals:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 131, p. 109-112.

 

Dai, S., Song, W., Zhao, L., Li, X., Hower, J.C., Ward, C.R., Wang, P., Li, T., Zheng, X., Seredin, V.V., Xie, P., Li, Q., Determination of boron in coal using closed vessel microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).  Energy & Fuels, v. 28, p. 4517-4522.

 

Silva, L.F.O., Oliveira, M.L.S., Kautzmann, R.M., Ramos, C.G., Izquierdo, M., Dai, S., Wilcox, J., Hoffman, J., Hower, J.C., Geochemistry and  mineralogy of coal-fired circulating fluidized bed combustion fly ashes:  Coal Combustion & Gasification Products, v. 6, p. 16-28.

 

Ruhl, L.S., Dwyer, G.S., Hsu-Kim, H., Hower, J.C., Vengosh, A.,  Boron and Strontium isotopic characterization of coal combustion residuals:  Validation of new environmental tracers:  Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 48, p. 14790-14798.   DOI: 10.1021/es503746v.

 

Hower, J.C., Thomas, G.A., Hopps, S.G., Trends in coal utilization and coal-combustion product production in Kentucky:  Results of the 2012 survey of power plants:  Coal Combustion & Gasification Products, v. 6, p. 35-41.

Dai, S., Ren, D., Zhou, Y., Seredin, V.V., Li, D., Zhang, M., Hower, J.C., Ward, C.R., Wang, X., Zhao, L., Song, X., Coal-hosted rare metal deposits: Genetic types, modes of occurrence, and utilization evaluation:  Journal of the China Coal Society (Meitan Xuebao), v. 39, p. 1707-1715. (in Chinese)

 

Hower, J.C., Historic record of coal fires in the Richmond Basin, Virginia.  In G.B. Stracher et al., Coal and peat fires:  A global perspective, vol. 3, Elsevier, chapter 26, p. 667-670.

 

Garrison, T.M., Hower, J.C., Stracher, G.B., Henke, K.R., O’Keefe, J.M.K., A review of sampling methods in coal fire studies.  In G.B. Stracher et al., Coal and peat fires:  A global perspective, vol. 3, Elsevier, chapter 29, p. 743-757.

 

Ruppert, L.F., Trippi, M.H., Hower, J.H., Grady, W.C., Levine, J.R., Thermal maturity patterns in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, chap. F.2 of Ruppert, L.F., and Ryder, R.T., eds., Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin; Distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1708, 13 p., oversized material, http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/pp1708F.2.

 

 

2015

 

Saikia, B.K., Ward, C.R., Oliveira, M.L.S., Hower, J.C., Leao, F.D., Johnston, M.N., O’Bryan, A., Sharma, A., Baruah, B.P., Silva, L.F., Geochemistry and nano-mineralogy of feed coals, mine overburden, and coal-derived fly ashes from Assam (North-east India): A multi-faceted analytical approach:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 137, p. 19-37.

 

Dai, S., Li, T., Jiang, Y., Ward, C.R., Hower, J.C., Sun, J., Liu, J., Song, H., Wei, J., Li, Q., Xie, P., Huang, Q., Mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the Pennsylvanian coal in the Hailiushu Mine, Daqingshan Coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China: Implications of sediment-source region and acid hydrothermal solutions:  International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 137, p. 92-110.

 

Dai, S., Seredin, V.V., Ward, C.R., Hower, J.C., Xing, Y., Zhang, W., Song, W., Wang, P., Enrichment of U–Se–Mo–Re–V in coals preserved within marine carbonate successions: Geochemical and mineralogical data from the Guiding Coalfield, Guizhou, China. Mineralium Deposita, v.50, p. 159-186.

 

Mastalerz, M., Hower, J.C., Chen, Y., Microanalysis of barkinite from Chinese coals of high volatile bituminous rank: International Journal of Coal Geology, vol. 141-142, p. 103-108.

 

Dai, S., Hower, J.C., Ward, C.R., Guo, W., Song, H., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Xie, P., Hood, M.M., Yan, X., Elements and phosphorus minerals in the middle Jurassic inertinite-rich coals of the Muli Coalfield on the Tibetan Plateau: International Journal of Coal Geology, vol. 144-145, p. 23-47.

 

Dindarloo, S.R., Hood, M.M., Bagherieh, A., Hower, J.C., A statistical assessment of carbon monoxide emissions from the Truman Shepherd coal fire, Floyd County, Kentucky: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 144-145, p. 88-97. doi: 10.1016/j.coal.2015.03.012.

 

Dai, S., Yang, J., Ward, C.R., Hower, J.C., Liu, H., Garrison, T.M., French, D., O’Keefe, J,M.K., Geochemical and mineralogical evidence for the coal-hosted uranium deposit from the Yili Basin, Xinjiang, northwestern China:  Ore Geology Reviews, vol. 70, p. 1-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2015.03.010

 

Wang, X., Elshahawi, S., Shaaban, K., Reynolds, A.R., Ponomareva, L., Saunders, M.A., Elgumati, I.S. Zhang, Y., Copley, G., Hower, J.C., Sunkara, M., Morris, A.J., Kharel, M., Van Lanen, S.G., Prendergast, M.A., Thorson, J., Terfestatins B and C, unique p-Terphenyl Glycosides produced by Streptomyces sp. RM-5-8:  Organic Letters, DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.5b01203.

 

Dai, S., Wang, P., Ward, C.R., Tang, Y., Song, X., Jiang, J., Hower, J.C., Li, T., Seredin, V.V., Wagner, N.J., Jiang, Y., Wang, X., Liu, J.,  Elemental and mineralogical anomalies in the coal-hosted Ge ore deposit of Lincang, Yunnan, southwestern China: Key role of N2–CO2-mixed hydrothermal solutions: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 152, p. 19-46.

 

Saikia, B.K., Hower, J.C., Hood, M.M., Baruah, R., Dekaboruah, H.P., Baruah, R., Sharma, A., Baruah, B., Petrological and biological studies on some fly and bottom ashes collected at different times from an Indian coal-based captive power plant:  Fuel, vol. 158, p. 572-581.

 

Hower, J.C., Groppo, J.G., Henke, K.R., Hood, M.M., Eble, C.F., Honaker, R.Q., Zhang, W., Qian, D., Notes on the potential for the concentration of rare earth elements and Yttrium in coal combustion fly ash:  Minerals, vol. 5, p. 356-366.  doi:10.3390/min50x000x.

 

Dai, S., Liu, J., Ward, C. R.,  Hower, J.C., Xie, P., Jiang, Y., Hood, M.M., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Song, H., Petrological, geochemical, and mineralogical compositions of the low-Ge coals from the Shengli Coalfield, China: A comparative study with Ge-rich coals and a formation model for the Wulantuga Ge ore deposit:  Ore Geology Reviews, vol. 71, p. 318-349.

 

Dindarloo, S.R., Hower, J.C., Prediction of the unburned carbon content of fly ash in coal-fired power plants:  Coal Combustion & Gasification Products, v. 7, p. 19-29.

 

Zhang, L., Hower, J.C., Honaker, R.Q., Liu, W., Men, D., Flotation rates and zeta potentials of maceral concentrates of bituminous coals:  Minerals & Metallurgical Processing, v. 32, p. 129-137.

 

Hower, J.C., Eble, C.F., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Dai, S., Wang, P., Xie, P., Liu, J., Ward, C.R., French, D., Petrology, palynology, and geochemistry of the Gray Hawk coal (Early Pennsylvanian, Langsettian) in Eastern Kentucky, USA: Minerals, v. 5, p. 592-622.  doi:10.3390/min50x000x.

 

Harkness, J.S., Ruhl, L.S., Millot, R., Kloppmann, W., Hower, J.C., Hsu-Kim, H., Vengosh, A., Lithium Isotope Fingerprints in Coal and Coal Combustion Residuals from the United States: Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, v.13, p. 134-137.

 

Lauer, N., Hower, J.C., Hsu-Kim, H., Taggart, R.K., Vengosh, A., Naturally occurring radioactive materials in coal and coal combustion residuals in the United States:  Environmental Science & Technology, v. 49, p. 11227-11233. DOI:10.1021/acs.est.5b01978.

 

Jew, A.D., Rupp, E.C., Geatches, D.L., Jung, J.E., Farfan, G., Bahat, L., Hower, J.C., Brown, G.E., Jr., Wilcox, J.,  Mercury Interaction with the Fine Fraction of Coal-Combustion Fly Ash in a Simulated Coal Power Plant Flue Gas Stream:  Energy & Fuels, vol., 29, 6025-6038. DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b01253.

 

Wang, X., Elshahawi, S., Shaaban, K., Reynolds, A.R., Ponomareva, L., Saunders, M.A., Elgumati, I.S. Zhang, Y., Copley, G., Hower, J.C., Sunkara, M., Morris, A.J., Kharel, M., Van Lanen, S.G., Prendergast, M.A., Thorson, J., Correction to Terfestatins B and C, unique p-Terphenyl Glycosides produced by Streptomyces sp. RM-5-8:  Organic Letters, DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.5b02788.

 

Dindarloo, S.R., Bagherieh, A., Hower, J.C., Calder, J.H., Wagner, N.J., Coal modeling using Markov Chain and Monte Carlo simulation:  Analysis of microlithotype and lithotype succession:  Sedimentary Geology, vol. 329, p. 1-11. doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2015.08.005

 

Johnston, M.N., Hower, J.C., Dai, S., Wang, P., Xie, P., Liu, J., Petrology and geochemistry of the Harlan, Kellioka, and Darby coals from the Louellen 7.5-minute quadrangle, Harlan County, Kentucky:  Minerals, v. 5, p. 894-918.

 

Wilcox, J., Wang, B., Rupp, E., Taggart, R., Hsu-Kim, H., Oliveira, M.L.S., Cutruneo, C.M.N.L., Taffarel, S., Silva, L.F.O., Hopps, S.D., Thomas, G.A., Hower, J.C., Observations and assessment of fly ashes from high-sulfur bituminous coals and blends of high-sulfur bituminous and subbituminous coals: Environmental processes recorded at the macro and nanometer scale:  Energy & Fuels, v. 29, p. 7168-7177.  DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b02033

 

2016

 

Dai, S., Chekryzhov, I. Yu., Seredin, V.V., Nechaev, V.P., Graham, I.T., Hower, J.C., Ward, C.R, Ren, D., Wang, X., Metalliferous Coal Deposits in East Asia (Primorye of  Russia and South China): A Review of Geodynamic Controls and Styles of Mineralization: Gondwana Research, v. 29, p. 60-82.

 

Dai, S., Liu, J., Ward, C.R., Hower, J.C., French, D., Jia, S., Hood, M.M., Garrison, T.M., Mineralogical and geochemical compositions of Late Permian coals and host rocks from the Guxu Coalfield, Sichuan Province, China, with emphasis on enrichment of rare metals: International Journal of Coal Geology, vol. 166, p. 71-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2015.12.004.

 

Schwartz, G.E., Rivera, N., Lee, S.-W., Harrington, J., Hower, J.C., Levine, K., Vengosh, A., Hsu-Kim, H., Leaching Potential and Redox Transformations of Arsenic and Selenium in Sediment Microcosms with Fly Ash:  Applied Geochemistry, v. 67, p. 177-185.

 

Huggins, F.E., Rezaee. M., Honaker, R.Q., Hower, J.C., On the removal of hexavalent chromium from Class F fly ash:  Waste Management, vol. 51, p. 105-110.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2016.02.038.

 

Garrison, T.M., Hower, J.C., Fryar, A.E., D’Angelo, E.M., Water and Soil Quality at Two Eastern-Kentucky (USA) Coal Fires:  Environmental Earth Sciences, v. 75 (7), p. 1-13.

 

Zhang, L., Hower, J.C., Liu, W., Men, D., Maceral liberation and distribution of bituminous coal for predicting maceral-separation performance:  International Journal of Coal Preparation and Utilization, v. 37, p. 237-251.

 

Hower, J.C., Granite, E.J., Mayfield, D., Lewis, A., Finkelman, R.B., Notes on Contributions to the Science of Rare Earth Element Enrichment:  Minerals 6, doi:10.3390/min6020032.

 

Civeira, M., Oliveira, M.L.S., Hower, J.C., Agudelo-Castañeda, D.M., Taffarel, S.R., Ramos, C.G., Kautzmann, R.M., Silva, L.F.O., Modification, adsorption, and geochemistry processes on altered minerals and amorphous phases on the nanometer scale: examples from copper mining refuse, Touro, Spain:  Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 23,  p. 6535-6545. DOI 10.1007/s11356-015-5885-5

 

Hower, J.C., Eble, C.F., Dai, S., Belkin, H.E., Distribution of rare earth elements in eastern Kentucky coals: Indicators of multiple modes of enrichment?  International Journal of Coal Geology, vol. 160-161, p. 73-81.  10.1016/j.coal.2016.04.009

 

Hood, M.M., Groppo, J.G., Johnston, M.N., Hower, J.C., Clack, H.C., de Medeiros, D.S., Taffarel, S.R., Cutruneo, C.M.N.L., Silva, L.F.O., Influence of coal-fired power plant emissions regulations and consequent engineering controls and coal-supply modifications on fly ash chemistry and petrology:  Examples from Kentucky power plants:  Coal Combustion & Gasification Products, v. 8, p. 8-18.

 

Valentim, B., Algarra, M., Guedes, A., Ruppert, L.F., Hower, J.C., Notes on the origin of copromacrinite based on nitrogen functionalities and d13C and d15N determined on samples from the Peach Orchard coal bed, southern Magoffin County, Kentucky: International Journal of Coal Geology, v. 160-161, p. 63-72. 10.1016/j.coal.2016.05.004.

 

Chehreh Chelgani, S., Matin, S., Hower, J.C., Explaining relationships between Free Swelling Index (FSI) and coal quality by Random Forest method:  Fuel, vol. 182, p. 754-760.

 

Taggart, R.K., Hower, J.C., Dwyer, G.S., Hsu-Kim, H., Trends in the rare-earth element content of U.S.-based coal combustion fly ashes:  Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 50, p. 5919-5926. 10.1021/acs.est.6b00085.

Hower, J.C., Dai, S., Eskenazy, G., Distribution of Uranium and other radionuclides in coal and coal-combustion products, with discussion of occurrences of CCPs in Kentucky power plants:  Coal Combustion & Gasification Products, v. 8, p. 44-53.

Dai, S., Yan, X., Ward, C.R., Hower, J.C., Zhao, L., Wang, X., Zhao, L.X., Ren, D., Finkelman, R.B., Valuable elements in Chinese coals: A review:  International Geology Review, 10.1080/00206814.2016.1197802.

Dindarloo, S.R., Hower, J.C., Bagherieh, A., Trimble, A.S., Fundamental evaluation of petrographic effects on coal grindability by seasonal autoregression integrated moving average (SARIMA):  International Journal of Mineral Processing, v. 154, p. 94-99. doi:10.1016/j.minpro.2016.07.005

 

Hower, J.C., Dai, S., Petrology and Chemistry of sized Pennsylvania anthracite, with emphasis on the distribution of Rare Earth Elements: Fuel, v. 185, p. 305-315.

 

Kostova, I., Vassileva, C., Dai, S., Hower, J.C., Mineralogy, geochemistry and mercury content characterization of fly ashes from the Maritza 3 and Varna thermoelectric power plants, Bulgaria:  Fuel, v. 186, p. 674-684.

 

Zhang, L., Hower, J.C., Liu, W., Devolatilization and kinetics of maceral concentrates of bituminous coals.  Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 154, p. 147-155.

 

Matin,S.S., Hower, J.C., Farahzadi, L., Chehreh Chelgani, S., Explaining relationships among various coal analyses with coal grindability index by Random Forest. International Journal of Mineral Processing, v. 155, p. 140-146.

 

Hower, J.C., Coal: Wiley, Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, DOI: 10.1002/0471238961.0315011222151818.a01.pub3.

 

 

2017

 

Dai, S., Xie, P., Jia, S., Ward, C.R., Hower, J.C., Yan, X., French, D., Enrichment of U-Re-V-Cr-Se and rare earth elements in the Late Permian coals of the Moxinpo Coalfield, Chongqing, China: Genetic implications from geochemical and mineralogical data:  Ore Geology Reviews, vol. 80, p. 1-17. doi:10.1016/j.oregeorev.2016.06.015

 

Zhao, L., Dai. S., Graham, I.T., Li, X., Liu, H., Song, X., Hower, J.C., Zhou, Y., Cryptic sediment-hosted critical element mineralization from eastern Yunnan Province, southwestern China: mineralogy, geochemistry, relationship to Emeishan alkaline magmatism and possible origin: Ore Geology Reviews, vol. 80, p. 116-140.  doi:10.1016/j.oregeorev.2016.06.014

 

Craddock, J.D., Rantell, T.D., Hower, J.C., Whitlow, D.T., Wiseman, J., Weisenberger, M.T., Anode coke from coal – A low cost approach: Fuel, v. 187, p. 229-241.

 

Zhang, L., Hower, J.C., Liu, W., Non-isothermal TG-DSC study on prediction of caking properties of vitrinite-rich concentrates of bituminous coals.   Fuel Processing Technology,  v. 217, p. 500-504.

 

Shaaban, K., Saunders, M.A., Zhang, Y., Tran, T., Elshahawi, S.L., Ponomareva, L.V., Wang, X., Zhang, J., Copley, G.C., Sunkara, M., Kharel, M.K., Morris, A.J., Hower, J.C., Tremblay, M., Prendergast, M.A., Thorson, J.S., Spoxazomicin D and Oxachelin C, Potent Neuroprotective Carboxamides from the Appalachian Coal Fire-Associated Isolate Streptomyces sp. RM-14-6: Journal of Natural Products, vol. 80, p. 2-11.

 

Liu, J., Dai, S., He, X., Hower, J.C., Sakulpitakphon, T., Size-dependent variations in fly ash trace-element chemistry: Examples

from a Kentucky power plant and with emphasis on rare earth elements:  Energy & Fuels, vol. 31, p. 438-447.  DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b02644.

 

Hower, J.C., Clack, H.C., Hood, M.M., Hopps, S.G., Thomas, G.H., Impact of coal source changes on Mercury content in fly ash:  Examples from a Kentucky power plant:  International Journal of Coal Geology,  v. 170,  p. 2-6 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2016.10.007

 

Wang, X., Zhang, J., Ponomareva, L.V., Chen, X., Qiu, Q., Woodcock, R., Elshahawi, S.L., Chen, X., Zhou, Z., Hatcher, B.E., Hower, J.C., Zhan, C.-G., Parkin, S., Kharel, M.K., Voss, S.R., Shaaban, K.A., Thorson, J.S.,  Mccrearamycins A-D, geldanamycin-derived cyclopentenone macrolactams from an eastern Kentucky abandoned coal mine microbe:  Angewandte Chemie, vol. 56, p. 2994 –2998. 10.1002/anie.201612447

 

Hower, J.C., Hood, M.M., Taggart, R.K., Hsu-Kim, H., Chemistry and petrology of paired feed coal and combustion ash

from anthracite-burning stoker boilers:  Fuel, vol. 199, p. 438-446.

 

Hower, J.C., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Eble, C.F., Mississippian (Serpukhovian; Chesterian Stage) coals from the Fluorspar District, Crittenden and Caldwell counties, Kentucky: International Journal of Coal Geology, vol. 174, p. 23-30.

 

Wang, X., Elshahawi, S.L., Cai, W., Zhang, Y., Ponomareva, L.V., Chen, X., Copley, G.C., Hower, J.C., Zhan, G., Parkin, S., Rohr, J., Van Lanen, S., Shaaban, K.A., Thorson, J.S.,  Bi- and Tetracyclic Spirotetronates from the Coal Mine Fire Isolate Streptomyces sp. LC-6-2:  Journal of Natural Products, vol. 80, p. 1141–1149. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.7b00108.

 

Hower, J.C., Groppo, J.G., Henke, K.R., Graham, U.M., Hood, M.M., Joshi, P., Preda, D.V., Ponded and landfilled fly ash as a source of rare earth elements from a Kentucky power plant:  Coal Combustion & Gasification Products, doi:10.4177/CCGP-D-17-00003.1.

 

Hood, M.M., Taggart, R.K., Smith, R.C., Hsu-Kim, H., Henke, K.R., Graham, U.M., Groppo, J.G., Unrine, J.M., Hower, J.C., Rare earth element distribution in fly ash derived from the Fire Clay coal, Kentucky:  Coal Combustion & Gasification Products, doi:10.4177/CCGP-D-17-00002.1.

 

Hower, J.C., Groppo, J.G., Graham, U.M., Ward, C.R., Kostova, I.J., Maroto-Valer, M.M., Dai, S., Coal-derived unburned carbons in fly ash:  A review:  International Journal of Coal Geology, vol. 179, p. 11-27.

 

Dai, S., Bartley, R., Bartley, S., Valentim, B., Guedes, A., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Kus, J., Mastalerz, M.,  Hower, J.C., Organic geochemistry of Funginite (Miocene, Eel River, Mendocino County, California, USA) and Macrinite (Cretaceous, Inner Mongolia, China):  International Journal of Coal Geology, vol. 179, p. 60-71.  doi:10.1016/j.coal.2017.05.015

 

Yang, Y., Chen, B., Hower, J.C., Schindler, M., Winkler, C., Brandt, J., Di Giulio, R., Liu, M., Fu, Y., Priya, S., Hochella, M.F., Jr., Discovery and ramifications of incidental Magnéli phase generation and release from industrial coal burning:  Nature Communications, vol. 8,  http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1038/s41467-017-00276-2.

 

Garrison, T., O’Keefe, J.M.K., Henke, K.R., Copley, G.C., Blake, D.R., Hower, J.C., Gaseous emissions from the Lotts Creek coal mine fire:  Perry County, Kentucky:  International Journal of Coal Geology, vol. 180, p. 57-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2017.06.009

 

Hower, J.C., Henke, K.R., Dai, S., Ward. C.R., French, D., Liu, S., Graham, U., The generation and nature of coal fly ash and bottom ash.  In: Robl, T.L., et al., Coal Combustion Products, Cambridge, MA, Woodhead Publishing (Elsevier), Chapter 2, p. 21-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-100945-1.00002-2.

 

Davis, B.H., Hower, J.C., Coal technology for power, liquid fuels, and chemicals. J.A. Kent (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Chemistry and Biotechnology (13th ed.), Volume 1, Chapter 19, New York, Springer Science + Business Media, p. 749-805.

 

 

 

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